In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. But the earth was unsightly and unfurnished, and darkness was over the deep, and the Spirit of God moved over the water.
And God said, Let there be light, and there was light. And God saw the light that it was good, and God divided between the light and the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night, and there was evening and there was morning, the first day.
And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water, and let it be a division between water and water, and it was so. And God made the firmament, and God divided between the water which was under the firmament and the water which was above the firmament. And God called the firmament Heaven, and God saw that it was good, and there was evening and there was morning, the second day.
And God said, Let the water which is under the heaven be collected into one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so. And the water which was under the heaven was collected into its places, and the dry land appeared. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gatherings of the waters he called Seas, and God saw that it was good.
And God said, Let the earth bring forth the herb of grass bearing seed according to its kind and according to its likeness, and the fruit-tree bearing fruit whose seed is in it, according to its kind on the earth, and it was so. And the earth brought forth the herb of grass bearing seed according to its kind and according to its likeness, and the fruit tree bearing fruit whose seed is in it, according to its kind on the earth, and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, to divide between day and night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and for years. And let them be for light in the firmament of the heaven, so as to shine upon the earth, and it was so. And God made the two great lights, the greater light for regulating the day and the lesser light for regulating the night, the stars also. And God placed them in the firmament of the heaven, so as to shine upon the earth, and to regulate day and night, and to divide between the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.
And God said, Let the waters bring forth reptiles having life, and winged creatures flying above the earth in the firmament of heaven, and it was so. And God made great whales, and every living reptile, which the waters brought forth according to their kinds, and every creature that flies with wings according to its kind, and God saw that they were good. And God blessed them saying, Increase and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let the creatures that fly be multiplied on the earth. And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.
And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind, quadrupeds and reptiles and wild beasts of the earth according to their kind, and it was so. And God made the wild beasts of the earth according to their kind, and cattle according to their kind, and all the reptiles of the earth according to their kind, and God saw that they were good.
And God said, Let us make man according to our image and likeness, and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the flying creatures of heaven, and over the cattle and all the earth, and over all the reptiles that creep on the earth. And God made man, according to the image of God he made him, male and female he made them. And God blessed them, saying, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the seas and flying creatures of heaven, and all the cattle and all the earth, and all the reptiles that creep on the earth.
And God said, Behold I have given to you every seed-bearing herb sowing seed which is upon all the earth, and every tree which has in itself the fruit of seed that is sown, to you it shall be for food. And to all the wild beasts of the earth, and to all the flying creatures of heaven, and to every reptile creeping on the earth, which has in itself the breath of life, even every green plant for food; and it was so. And God saw all the things that he had made, and, behold, they were very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
(Genesis 1:1-31 Brenton)
God: Maker of Heaven and Earth
The Bible introduces "God" as the Maker of the heaven and the earth, and this chapter demonstrates that in the beginning was the word (or the saying), And God said..., and the word was with God and god was the word. The same was in the beginning with God.
All things were made by God's saying; and without God's saying was not anything made that was made. In the sayings of God was life, as clearly demonstrated by everything coming to be after God saying it.
And the life was the light of men as clearly demonstrated with the first thing said in verse 3: Let there be light. And there was light.
And God saw the light that it was good. And God divided between the light and the darkness. I believe this demonstrates how the light in the darkness did shine, and the darkness did not perceive or comprehend it. This is what I believe the author of the book of John was referring to in John 1:1-5.
After speaking light into existence, God divided the waters above from the waters below with a firmament He called "heaven", by the power of His speaking. Then He collected waters into one place, making dry land appear, calling the dry land "earth", most often translated as "land" throughout the Bible. And the gathered waters He called "seas".
Our world consists of this heaven and earth.
The Hebrew word translated here as seed is "zera" (H2233), which means seed, sowing, offspring. It comes from a verb that means to sow, scatter seed.
The Greek word used in the Septuagint is "sperma" (G4690), which is where we get the English word "sperm".
God made the herb of grass and the fruit-tree with seed in them for the purpose of self-replicating. And He made living creatures in such a way that they, too, could increase and multiply on their own.
In addition to all the living creatures, God put lights in the firmament of heaven to give light to the earth. These are understood to be the sun, moon and stars, and they are separate from the light that was called forth in the beginning.
According to the book of Job, there were angels in existence at this point:
Where wast thou when I founded the earth? tell me now, if thou hast knowledge, who set the measures of it, if thou knowest? or who stretched a line upon it? On what are its rings fastened? and who is he that laid the corner-stone upon it? When the stars were made, all my angels praised me with a loud voice.
(Job 38:4-7 Brenton)
The Greek word translated as "angels" (G32) is the plural of "aggelos", which means a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God. We see evidence of angels all throughout the Bible, calling out from heaven and appearing on earth as men.
And God heard the voice of the child from the place where he was, and an angel of God called Agar out of heaven, and said to her, What is it, Agar? fear not, for God has heard the voice of the child from the place where he is.
(Genesis 21:17 Brenton)
And the two angels came to Sodom at evening. And Lot sat by the gate of Sodom, and Lot having seen them, rose up to meet them, and he worshipped with his face to the ground, and said, Lo! my lords, turn aside to the house of your servant, and rest from your journey, and wash your feet, and having risen early in the morning ye shall depart on your journey.
And they said, Nay, but we will lodge in the street. And he constrained them, and they turned aside to him, and they entered into his house, and he made a feast for them, and baked unleavened cakes for them, and they did eat.
But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the Sodomites, compassed the house, both young and old, all the people together. And they called out Lot, and said to him, Where are the men that went in to thee this night? bring them out to us that we may be with them.
(Genesis 19:1-5 Brenton)
The last thing God made, according to Genesis 1, by the power of his speaking, was man, according to His image and likeness, and he was given dominion over the works of His hands.
There are two passages that speak of man being made in the image of God in the apocryphal writings, The Wisdom of Solomon, and The Wisdom of Sirach, and the second of these passages addresses man's dominion given him. The Wisdom of Solomon also addresses man's dominion.
And according to Psalm 8, man was made a little less than the angels, and was crowned in honor and glory.
For I will regard the heavens, the work of thy fingers; the moon and stars, which thou hast established. What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest him?
Thou madest him a little less than angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honour; and thou hast set him over the works of thy hands: thou hast put all things under his feet: sheep and all oxen, yea and the cattle of the field; the birds of the sky, and the fish of the sea, the creatures passing through the paths of the sea.
(Psalms 8:3-8 Brenton)
We also see, according to Psalm 91 (in the Septuagint), that angels are used by God to protect mankind:
Praise of a Song, by David. He that dwells in the help of the Highest, shall sojourn under the shelter of the God of heaven. He shall say to the Lord, Thou art my helper and my refuge: my God; I will hope in him.
For he shall deliver thee from the snare of the hunters, from every troublesome matter. He shall overshadow thee with his shoulders, and thou shalt trust under his wings: his truth shall cover thee with a shield.
Thou shalt not be afraid of terror by night; nor of the arrow flying by day; nor of the evil thing that walks in darkness; nor of calamity, and the evil spirit at noon-day. A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand; but it shall not come nigh thee. Only with thine eyes shalt thou observe and see the reward of sinners.
For thou, O Lord, art my hope: thou, my soul, hast made the Most High thy refuge.
No evils shall come upon thee, and no scourge shall draw night to thy dwelling. For he shall give his angels charge concerning thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up on their hands, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. Thou shalt tread on the asp and basilisk: and thou shalt trample on the lion and dragon.
For he has hoped in me, and I will deliver him: I will protect him, because he has known my name. He shall call upon me, and I will hearken to him: I am with him in affliction; and I will deliver him, and glorify him. I will satisfy him with length of days, and shew him my salvation.
(Psalms 91:1-16 Brenton)
And we see in Psalm 103 (in the Septuagint) that the angels are mighty in strength and perform the bidding of YHVH:
The Lord has prepared his throne in the heaven; and his kingdom rules over all. Bless the Lord, all ye his angels, mighty in strength, who perform his bidding, ready to hearken to the voice of his words. Bless the Lord, all ye his hosts; ye ministers of his that do his will. Bless the Lord, all his works, in every place of his dominion: bless the Lord, O my soul.
(Psalms 103:19-22 Brenton)
And Psalm 104 says of them:
A Psalm of David. Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou hast clothed thyself with praise and honour: who dost robe thyself with light as with a garment; spreading out the heaven as a curtain. Who covers his chambers with waters; who makes the clouds his chariot; who walks on the wings of the wind. Who makes his angels spirits, and his ministers a flaming fire. Who establishes the earth on her sure foundation: it shall not be moved for ever.
(Psalms 104:1-5 Brenton)
And in Psalm 148 we see the psalmist's understanding of the angels, being in heaven:
Alleluia, a Psalm of Aggaeus and Zacharias. Praise ye the Lord from the heavens: praise him in the highest. Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts. Praise him, sun and moon; praise him, all ye stars and light. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and the water that is above the heavens. Let them praise the name of the Lord: for he spoke, and they were made; he commanded, and they were created. He has established them for ever, even for ever and ever: he has made an ordinance, and it shall not pass away.
(Psalms 148:1-6 Brenton)
Some understand the reference in Genesis 1 to "us" when God says, Let us make man in our image is indicative of a tri-une God, but it seems more likely to me that He may have been speaking in the presence of an assembly, which included his angels and/or ministers.
Psalm 82 says:
A Psalm for Asaph. God stands in the assembly of gods; and in the midst of them will judge gods. How long will ye judge unrighteously, and accept the persons of sinners? Pause.
Judge the orphan and poor: do justice to the low and needy. Rescue the needy, and deliver the poor out of the hand of the sinner. They know not, nor understand; they walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth shall be shaken.
I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you children of the Most High. But ye die as men, and fall as one of the princes. Arise, O God, judge the earth: for thou shalt inherit all nations.
(Psalms 82:1-8 Brenton)
I don't know for certain if this is the reason for the use of the word "us" in Genesis 1, but I see no evidence of their being a Godhead of three, consisting of a Father, Son and Holy Spirit, which the mainstream Trinity Doctrine purports.
On the contrary, I see one who is simply called God doing all the speaking.
Behold, They Were Very Good
I think it is so important to recognize this Natural Order set in place by God Himself was very good. And just because the consequence of death appears in the coming chapters as a result of man's free will, this does not negate the fact that all the things which God had made in the beginning were very good.
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And the heavens and the earth were finished, and the whole world of them. And God finished on the sixth day his works which he made, and he ceased on the seventh day from all his works which he made.
And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it he ceased from all his works which God began to do.
(Genesis 2:1-3 Brenton)
This establishes the point that God finished the works which He made in the beginning, thereby He did not have unfinished business to tend to thousands of years later, such as forming another man from the dust of the earth.
Given the completion of God's works and his resting on the seventh day, I believe the notion of "seven" denotes a completion, and we see references to it all throughout Scripture, in addition to its common use in the counting of days and years.
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This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were made, in the day in which the Lord God made the heaven and the earth, and every herb of the field before it was on the earth, and all the grass of the field before it sprang up, for God had not rained on the earth, and there was not a man to cultivate it. But there rose a fountain out of the earth, and watered the whole face of the earth.
And God formed the man of dust of the earth, and breathed upon his face the breath of life, and the man became a living soul.
And God planted a garden eastward in Edem, and placed there the man whom he had formed. And God made to spring up also out of the earth every tree beautiful to the eye and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of learning the knowledge of good and evil.
And a river proceeds out of Edem to water the garden, thence it divides itself into four heads. The name of the one, Phisom, this it is which encircles the whole land of Evilat, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good, there also is carbuncle and emerald. And the name of the second river is Geon, this it is which encircles the whole land of Ethiopia. And the third river is Tigris, this is that which flows forth over against the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
And the Lord God took the man whom he had formed, and placed him in the garden of Delight, to cultivate and keep it. And the Lord God gave a charge to Adam, saying, Of every tree which is in the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil—of it ye shall not eat, but in whatsoever day ye eat of it, ye shall surely die.
And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone, let us make for him a help suitable to him. And God formed yet farther out of the earth all the wild beasts of the field, and all the birds of the sky, and he brought them to Adam, to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called any living creature, that was the name of it.
And Adam gave names to all the cattle and to all the birds of the sky, and to all the wild beasts of the field, but for Adam there was not found a help like to himself.
And God brought a trance upon Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs, and filled up the flesh instead thereof. And God formed the rib which he took from Adam into a woman, and brought her to Adam. And Adam said, This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of her husband.
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.
(Genesis 2:4-24 Brenton)
The Book of Genesis
The Greek word translated as "generation" in verse 4 is genesis (G1078), which means source, origin. It comes from the word genos (G1085), which means kindred, coming from the verb ginomai (G1096), which primarily means: to become, ie. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being.
The Lord God
In this chapter we see additional words concerning the Maker of the heaven and the earth. He is not just identified as God, but rather He is the Lord God.
The translation quoted here is of the Greek Septuagint, and the Greek word for "Lord" is "kurios" (G2962), which means, he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has power of deciding; master, lord.
However, in the Hebrew Masoretic Text we find the Hebrew letters "yod-hey-vav-hey" or "YHVH" (H3068), where the English translations would say "LORD" written in ALLCAPS. This word is Yehovah, which is the proper name of the one true God, according to Brown-Driver-Briggs, and it means the existing One.
We see this name introduced to Moses in Exodus 3 at the burning bush on Mt. Horeb:
And Moses was feeding the flock of Jothor his father-in-law, the priest of Madiam; and he brought the sheep nigh to the wilderness, and came to the mount of Choreb. And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in flaming fire out of the bush, and he sees that the bush burns with fire, --but the bush was not consumed.
And Moses said, I will go near and see this great sight, why the bush is not consumed. And when the Lord saw that he drew nigh to see, the Lord called him out of the bush, saying, Moses, Moses; and he said, What is it? And he said, Draw not nigh hither: loose thy sandals from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. And he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraam, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and Moses turned away his face, for he was afraid to gaze at God.
And the Lord said to Moses, I have surely seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt, and I have heard their cry caused by their task-masters; for I know their affliction. And I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land, and to bring them into a good and wide land, into a land flowing with milk and honey, into the place of the Chananites, and the Chettites, and Amorites, and Pherezites, and Gergesites, and Evites, and Jebusites.
And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come to me, and I have seen the affliction with which the Egyptians afflict them. And now come, I will send thee to Pharao king of Egypt, and thou shalt bring out my people the children of Israel from the land of Egypt.
And Moses said to God, Who am I, that I should go to Pharao king of Egypt, and that I should bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt? And God spoke to Moses, saying, I will be with thee, and this shall be the sign to thee that I shall send thee forth, —when thou bringest out my people out of Egypt, then ye shall serve God in this mountain.
And Moses said to God, Behold, I shall go forth to the children of Israel, and shall say to them, The God of our fathers has sent me to you; and they will ask me, What is his name? What shall I say to them? And God spoke to Moses, saying, I am THE BEING; and he said, Thus shall ye say to the children of Israel, THE BEING has sent me to you.
And God said again to Moses, Thus shalt thou say to the sons of Israel, The Lord God of our fathers, the God of Abraam, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, has sent me to you: this is my name for ever, and my memorial to generations of generations.
(Exodus 3:1-15 Brenton)
The parallel passage of verses 13-15 from the Hebrew Masoretic Text translated into English in the King James Version reads like this:
And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
(Exodus 3:13-15 KJV)
Please Note: Just because we see the phrase, "the Lord", all throughout the English translations of the Greek Septuagint, this does not automatically equate to the title, "Yehovah" or "YHVH", as seen in the Hebrew. Sometimes it could simply be referring to a "lord" or "master" as seen here:
A Psalm of David. The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
(Psalms 110:1 Brenton)
A Psalm of David. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
(Psalms 110:1 KJV)
The former mention of Lord is referring to the name, Yehovah (YHVH), whereas the latter mention is referring to another Lord (or Master), who is not YHVH.
However, when reading the KJV and other English translations of the Hebrew Masoretic, when the phrase "the LORD" appears with "LORD" in ALLCAPS, that is a translation for "YHVH". And when it is not in ALLCAPS, it usually means "lord" or "master", translated from various Hebrew words that carry similar meaning.
The Man Became a Living Soul
It appears that the flesh and bone of man were formed from the dust of the earth, and the spirit of man was given him when God breathed into him the breath of life.
God Forms Each Man
While we see here that Adam was formed from the dust of the earth, we see other examples of mankind being formed by God, both figuratively and literally throughout the rest of the Septuagint.
Of Jacob we read...
Thus saith the Lord God that made thee, and he that formed thee from the womb; Thou shalt yet be helped: fear not, my servant Jacob; and beloved Israel, whom I have chosen.
(Isaiah 44:2 Brenton)
Of Jeremiah we read...
And the word of the Lord came to him, saying, Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee; and before thou camest forth from the womb, I sanctified thee; I appointed thee a prophet to the nations.
(Jeremiah 1:4-5 Brenton)
God Gives the Breath of Life
Job declares the life of all living things and the breath of every man is in YHVH's hands...
Who then has not known in all these things, that the hand of the Lord has made them? Whereas the life of all living things is in his hand, and the breath of every man.
(Job 12:9-10 Brenton)
He also speaks of the breath of God which remains to him in his nostrils...
And Job further continued and said in his parable, As God lives, who has thus judge me; and the Almighty, who has embittered my soul; verily, while my breath is yet in me, and the breath of God which remains to me is in my nostrils, my lips shall not speak evil words, neither shall my soul meditate unrighteous thoughts.
(Job 27:1-4 Brenton)
In the Apocryphal book of 2 Maccabees we read a mother declaring she did not give breath or life to her children, nor was it she who formed their members in her womb. She credits the Creator who formed the generation of man.
God Gives Each Man a Spirit
Thus saith the Lord God, who made the heaven, and established it; who settled the earth, and the things in it, and gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to them that tread on it:
(Isaiah 42:5 Brenton)
...before the dust also return to the earth as it was, and the spirit return to God who gave it.
(Ecclesiastes 12:7 Brenton)
In The Wisdom of Solomon, we read that it was understood that man borrows his own spirit.
Genesis 1:8 tells us that the man became a living soul. This word translated as "became" is ginomai (G1096), which again, means: to become, ie. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being.
It appears that God is very instrumental in the life of every man, not just Adam. He knows us before we are conceived; He forms us in our mother's womb; He gives us the breath of life, and to each one He gives us our own spirit.
A Charge Given to Adam
God planted a garden, in which there were trees, beautiful to the eye and good for food, and there were two trees specified: the tree of life, and the tree of learning the knowledge of good and evil.
The Greek word translated as "garden" is paradeisos (G3857), which is where I believe we get the English word paradise. We read of this place in the New Testament, nearing Jesus' death in Luke:
and he said to Jesus, 'Remember me, lord, when thou mayest come in thy reign;' and Jesus said to him, 'Verily I say to thee, To-day[,] with me thou shalt be in the paradise.'
(Luke 23:42-43 YLT punctuation revision mine)
And then in the vision John saw in Revelation 2:7:
He who is having an ear--let him hear what the Spirit saith to the assemblies: To him who is overcoming--I will give to him to eat of the tree of life that is in the midst of the paradise of God.
(Revelation 2:7 YLT)
I believe these references to paradise in the New Testament are speaking of the same place as the garden in Genesis 2-3. And God placed the man in that garden to cultivate and keep it. And God specifically told Adam that he was forbidden to eat of the second specified tree: the tree of learning the knowledge of good and evil, and the consequence for doing so would be death to him.
A Help Suitable to Man
After YHVH God formed the animals and Adam named them, we see there was not found a help like to himself for Adam. So, God took one of Adam's ribs while he slept, and filled up the flesh instead thereof, forming woman. And Adam called her, woman, saying, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh.
Then we're told, a man shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. On a very simplistic level, the concept of a male part and a female part is that the two are fashioned to physically fit together to form one whole unit.
All of this took place in the day in which the Lord God made the heaven and the earth, more specifically on the sixth day.
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It is often thought that due to the fall of Adam in this next chapter of Genesis, mankind somehow became corrupt in his DNA makeup. The general idea is that man went from being sinless in nature to becoming sinful, and every offspring thereafter became innately sinful. But is that what Genesis 3 is saying? Let's look and see...
And the two were naked, both Adam and his wife, and were not ashamed.
Now the serpent was the most crafty of all the brutes on the earth, which the Lord God made, and the serpent said to the woman, Wherefore has God said, Eat not of every tree of the garden?
And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden, but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.
And the serpent said to the woman, Ye shall not surely die. For God knew that in whatever day ye should eat of it your eyes would be opened, and ye would be as gods, knowing good and evil.
And the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes to look upon and beautiful to contemplate, and having taken of its fruit she ate, and she gave to her husband also with her, and they ate.
And the eyes of both were opened, and they perceived that they were naked, and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons to go round them.
And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the afternoon; and both Adam and his wife hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in the midst of the trees of the garden.
And the Lord God called Adam and said to him, Adam, where art thou? And he said to him, I heard thy voice as thou walkedst in the garden, and I feared because I was naked and I hid myself. And God said to him, Who told thee that thou wast naked, unless thou hast eaten of the tree concerning which I charged thee of it alone not to eat? And Adam said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me--she gave me of the tree and I ate.
And the Lord God said to the woman, Why hast thou done this? And the woman said, The serpent deceived me and I ate.
And the Lord God said to the serpent, Because thou hast done this thou art cursed above all cattle and all the brutes of the earth, on thy breast and belly thou shalt go, and thou shalt eat earth all the days of thy life. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman and between thy seed and her seed, he shall watch against thy head, and thou shalt watch against his heel.
And to the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy pains and thy groanings; in pain thou shalt bring forth children, and thy submission shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.
And to Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and eaten of the tree concerning which I charged thee of it only not to eat—of that thou hast eaten, cursed is the ground in thy labours, in pain shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread until thou return to the earth out of which thou wast taken, for earth thou art and to earth thou shalt return.
And Adam called the name of his wife Life, because she was the mother of all living.
And the Lord God made for Adam and his wife garments of skin, and clothed them.
And God said, Behold, Adam is become as one of us, to know good and evil, and now lest at any time he stretch forth his hand, and take of the tree of life and eat, and so he shall live forever--
So the Lord God sent him forth out of the garden of Delight to cultivate the ground out of which he was taken. And he cast out Adam and caused him to dwell over against the garden of Delight, and stationed the cherubs and the fiery sword that turns about to keep the way of the tree of life.
(Genesis 3:1-25 Brenton)
Curses Given Due to Sin
To the Serpent
One of the curses given to the Serpent for deceiving the Woman was that God would put enmity between the Serpent and the Woman, and between the Serpent's seed and the Woman's seed. And, the Seed of the Woman shall watch against the Serpent's head, and the Serpent shalt watch against the Seed of the Woman's heel.
To the Woman
The curse to the Woman involved her submission being to her husband/man, and he would rule over her.
To the Man
The curse to the Man involved him returning to the earth out of which he was taken. And then consequently, both Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden.
Notice, in the curses and verses that follow, there is no mention of a change in Adam's physical makeup. They were made of the dust of the earth before the fall, and they remained such after the fall. What changed was his access to the tree of life.
It is my understanding, that while man was made to be immortal, by being provided with the tree of life to nourish him all the days of his life, he became mortal as a consquence of his sin by losing out on that provision for life.
Sin is Something We Do
When Paul wrote in his letter to the Romans concerning sin entering the world through Adam in chapter 5, I don't think he was saying that as a result of Adam's sin, all of mankind was inherently sinful as part of their DNA.
Rather, as a result, all of mankind was then destined to die. The fact that Paul says, "for that all did sin", I think he's saying because of Adam's disobedience -- an act of sin, future disobedience by mankind was ushered in. Meaning, future acts of sin would take place going forward.
because of this, even as through one man the sin did enter into the world, and through the sin the death; and thus to all men the death did pass through, for that all did sin; for till law sin was in the world: and sin is not reckoned when there is not law; but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of him who is coming.
(Romans 5:12-14 YLT)
I think this distinction is important. To sin is to commit an act of disobedience to God's instruction. It is not a physical trait that is passed down through the human genome.
Here are other examples of what the New Testament has to say on the matter:
Jesus answered them, 'Verily, verily, I say to you--Every one who is committing sin, is a servant of the sin, and the servant doth not remain in the house--to the age, the son doth remain--to the age;
(John 8:34-35 YLT)
Let no one say, being tempted--'From God I am tempted,' for God is not tempted of evil, and Himself doth tempt no one, and each one is tempted, by his own desires being led away and enticed, afterward the desire having conceived, doth give birth to sin, and the sin having been perfected, doth bring forth death.
(James 1:13-15 YLT)
Every one who is doing the sin, the lawlessness also he doth do, and the sin is the lawlessness, and ye have known that he was manifested that our sins he may take away, and sin is not in him; every one who is remaining in him doth not sin; every one who is sinning, hath not seen him, nor known him.
(1 John 3:4-6 YLT)
There is a popular belief within the Virgin Birth Doctrinal claim camp that Jesus had to be born of a virgin, without the man's participation, in order to bypass the original sin factor that is understood to pass down through the act of marital relations, according to Catholic dogma, because the notion is that Jesus was born without sin.
The idea surrounding Jesus' sinless nature is likely tied to verses like these:
And the all things are of God, who reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and did give to us the ministration of the reconciliation, how that God was in Christ--a world reconciling to Himself, not reckoning to them their trespasses; and having put in us the word of the reconciliation, in behalf of Christ, then, we are ambassadors, as if God were calling through us, we beseech, in behalf of Christ, 'Be ye reconciled to God;' for him who did not know sin, in our behalf He did make sin, that we may become the righteousness of God in him.
(2 Corinthians 5:18-21 YLT)
Having, then, a great chief priest passed through the heavens--Jesus the Son of God--may we hold fast the profession, for we have not a chief priest unable to sympathise with our infirmities, but one tempted in all things in like manner--apart from sin; we may come near, then, with freedom, to the throne of the grace, that we may receive kindness, and find grace--for seasonable help.
(Hebrews 4:14-16 YLT)
The domestics! be subjecting yourselves in all fear to the masters, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the cross; for this is gracious, if because of conscience toward God any one doth endure sorrows, suffering unrighteously; for what renown is it, if sinning and being buffeted, ye do endure it ? but if, doing good and suffering for it , ye do endure, this is gracious with God, for to this ye were called, because Christ also did suffer for you, leaving to you an example, that ye may follow his steps, who did not commit sin, nor was guile found in his mouth, who being reviled--was not reviling again, suffering--was not threatening, and was committing himself to Him who is judging righteously, who our sins himself did bear in his body, upon the tree, that to the sins having died, to the righteousness we may live; by whose stripes ye were healed, for ye were as sheep going astray, but ye turned back now to the shepherd and overseer of your souls.
(1 Peter 2:18-25 YLT)
It is my understanding that Jesus was without sin because he did not commit sin.
Some understand that this supposed sin-corrupted DNA is passed down particularly through the father, hence the need for Joseph to not be the physical father of Jesus. But as we can see in Genesis 3, there is nothing to indicate an alteration of either Adam or Eve's DNA took place as result of their sin in the Garden.
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And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain and said, I have gained a man through God. And she again bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
And it was so after some time that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice to the Lord. And Abel also brought of the first born of his sheep and of his fatlings, and God looked upon Abel and his gifts, but Cain and his sacrifices he regarded not, and Cain was exceedingly sorrowful and his countenance fell.
And the Lord God said to Cain, Why art thou become very sorrowful and why is thy countenance fallen? Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him.
And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go out into the plain; and it came to pass that when they were in the plain Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.
And the Lord God said to Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? and he said, I know not, am I my brother's keeper?
And the Lord said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood cries to me out of the ground. And now thou art cursed from the earth which has opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand. When thou tillest the earth, then it shall not continue to give its strength to thee: thou shalt be groaning and trembling on the earth.
And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. If thou castest me out this day from the face of the earth, and I shall be hidden from thy presence, and I shall be groaning and trembling upon the earth, then it will be that any one that finds me shall slay me.
And the Lord God said to him, Not so, any one that slays Cain shall suffer seven-fold vengeance; and the Lord God set a mark upon Cain that no one that found him might slay him. So Cain went forth from the presence of God and dwelt in the land of Nod over against Edem.
And Cain knew his wife, and having conceived she bore Enoch; and he built a city; and he named the city after the name of his son, Enoch. And to Enoch was born Gaidad; and Gaidad begot Maleleel; and Maleleel begot Mathusala; and Mathusala begot Lamech.
And Lamech took to himself two wives; the name of the one was Ada, and the name of the second Sella. And Ada bore Jobel; he was the father of those that dwell in tents, feeding cattle. And the name of his brother was Jubal; he it was who invented the psaltery and harp. And Sella also bore Thobel; he was a smith, a manufacturer both of brass and iron; and the sister of Thobel was Noema.
And Lamech said to his wives, Ada and Sella, Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, consider my words, because I have slain a man to my sorrow and a youth to my grief. Because vengeance has been exacted seven times on Cain's behalf, on Lamech's it shall be seventy times seven.
And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore a son, and called his name Seth, saying, For God has raised up to me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.
And Seth had a son, and he called his name Enos: he hoped to call on the name of the Lord God.
(Genesis 4:1-26 Brenton)
A Man Knows A Woman
It was established in Genesis 3:20 that Eve (aka Life) was the mother of all living, and these passages in Genesis 4 make it clear that the man, who is the father, also known as the progenitor, is the sower of seed.
So, the Natural Order being established here is that a man knows a woman, and with the help of God, the woman conceives and brings forth new life.
The Greek word translated in these three verses as "conceived" is sullambano (G4815), which means to seize, take: one as prisoner; to conceive, of a woman; to seize for one's self; to take hold together with one, to assist, help, to succour. Apparently the woman is seizing for one's self, taking hold together with one the seed of the man that was sown in her.
Notice, Seth is identified as another seed to replace Abel in verse 25, who was evidently also considered a seed. Why are these offspring of the woman considered "seed"? Could it be because they, being sons in particular, are the sowers of seed?
It is the man who sows seed, and the woman is in whom the seed is sown. Without the man knowing his woman, it is impossible for her to conceive. And then, it is YHVH God who forms the flesh from the seed sown in the woman's womb, and He gives breath and spirit, in order for the woman to bring forth life.
And in this case, the life she brings forth are more sowers of seed, aka sons.
The Hebrew word translated as "son" is "ben" (H1121), and it comes from the verb root "banah" (H1129), which means "to build, rebuild, establish, cause to continue", according to Brown-Driver-Briggs. Both words appear in verse 17.
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This is the genealogy of men in the day in which God made Adam; in the image of God he made him: male and female he made them, and blessed them; and he called his name Adam, in the day in which he made them.
And Adam lived two hundred and thirty years, and begot [a son] after his own form, and after his own image, and he called his name Seth.
And the days of Adam, which he lived after his begetting Seth, were seven hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Adam which he lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.
Now Seth lived two hundred and five years, and begot Enos. And Seth lived after his begetting Enos, seven hundred and seven years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.
And Enos lived an hundred and ninety years, and begot Cainan. And Enos lived after his begetting Cainan, seven hundred and fifteen years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years, and he died.
And Cainan lived an hundred and seventy years, and he begot Maleleel. And Cainan lived after his begetting Maleleel, seven hundred and forty years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.
And Maleleel lived an hundred and sixty and five years, and he begot Jared. And Maleleel lived after his begetting Jared, seven hundred and thirty years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Maleleel were eight hundred and ninety and five years, and he died.
And Jared lived an hundred and sixty and two years, and begot Enoch: and Jared lived after his begetting Enoch, eight hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty and two years, and he died.
And Enoch lived an hundred and sixty and five years, and begat Mathusala. And Enoch was well-pleasing to God after his begetting Mathusala, two hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty and five years. And Enoch was well-pleasing to God, and was not found, because God translated him.
And Mathusala lived an hundred and sixty and seven years, and begot Lamech. And Mathusala lived after his begetting Lamech eight hundred and two years, and begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Mathusala which he lived, were nine hundred and sixty and nine years, and he died.
And Lamech lived an hundred and eighty and eight years, and begot a son. And he called his name Noe, saying, This one will cause us to cease from our works, and from the toils of our hands, and from the earth, which the Lord God has cursed. And Lamech lived after his begetting Noe, five hundred and sixty and five years, and begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred and fifty-three years, and he died.
(Genesis 5:1-31 Brenton)
A Son After His Own Form and Image
Verse 1 reminds the reader that Adam was made in the image of God. The remainder of this chapter lays out the house of Adam being established through one particular line of sons, or sowers of seed, starting with Seth and continuing through to Noah.
Notice the detail given concerning Seth, that he was begotten after his father's own form and image.
I think there are two things that are noteworthy with this detail:
- The fact that Adam is identified as being made in the image of God, and Seth is identified as being begotten in the image of Adam suggests a Father-Son relationship between God and Adam.
- The fact that Seth is identified as being begotten after the image and form of Adam, whereas Cain is not in the previous chapter suggests not all sons are made in the image and likeness of their fathers.
It appears this may have been the reasoning for those who supposed how Jesus could be called the "Son" of God at the time of his water baptism in Luke 3, being the son of Joseph. In that list of names, it goes all the way back to God, suggesting Adam was a sort of "son" of God:
And it came to pass, in all the people being baptised, Jesus also being baptised, and praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit came down in a bodily appearance, as if a dove, upon him, and a voice came out of heaven, saying, 'Thou art My Son--the Beloved, in thee I did delight.'
And Jesus himself was beginning to be about thirty years of age, being, as was supposed, son of Joseph, the [son] of Eli, the [son] of Matthat, the [son] of Levi, the [son] of Melchi, the [son] of Janna, the [son] of Joseph, the [son] of Mattathias, the [son] of Amos, the [son] of Naum, the [son] of Esli, the [son] of Naggai, the [son] of Maath, the [son] of Mattathias, the [son] of Semei, the [son] of Joseph, the [son] of Juda, the [son] of Joanna, the [son] of Rhesa, the [son] of Zerubbabel, the [son] of Shealtiel, the [son] of Neri, the [son] of Melchi, the [son] of Addi, the [son] of Cosam, the [son] of Elmodam, the [son] of Er, the [son] of Jose, the [son] of Eliezer, the [son] of Jorim, the [son] of Matthat, the [son] of Levi, the [son] of Simeon, the [son] of Juda, the [son] of Joseph, the [son] of Jonan, the [son] of Eliakim, the [son] of Melea, the [son] of Mainan, the [son] of Mattatha, the [son] of Nathan, the [son] of David, the [son] of Jesse, the [son] of Obed, the [son] of Booz, the [son] of Salmon, the [son] of Nahshon, the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Aram, the [son] of Esrom, the [son] of Pharez, the [son] of Judah, the [son] of Jacob, the [son] of Isaac, the [son] of Abraham, the [son] of Terah, the [son] of Nahor, the [son] of Serug, the [son] of Reu, the [son] of Peleg, the [son] of Eber, the [son] of Salah, the [son] of Cainan, the [son] of Arphaxad, the [son] of Shem, the [son] of Noah, the [son] of Lamech, the [son] of Methuselah, the [son] of Enoch, the [son] of Jared, the [son] of Mahalaleel, the [son] of Cainan, the [son] of Enos, the [son] of Seth, the [son] of Adam, the [son] of God.
(Luke 3:21-38 YLT)
And given that this list goes through Nathan, and not Solomon, it could be that the people rejected the notion that Solomon qualified as a Son of God, having strayed from YHVH's ways at the end of his days, thereby demonstrating he was not begotten in the image and form of his father, David, who evidently was begotten in the image and form of YHVH.
And it came to pass in the time of the old age of Solomon, that his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father. and to Astarte the abomination of the Sidonians. And Solomon did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord: he went not after the Lord, as David his father. And the strange women turned away his heart after their gods. Then Solomon built a high place to Chamos the idol of Moab, and to their king the idol of the children of Ammon, And thus he acted towards all his strange wives, who burnt incense and sacrificed to their idols.
And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because he turned away his heart from the Lord God of Israel, who had appeared twice to him, and charged him concerning this matter, by no means to go after other gods, but to take heed to do what the Lord God commanded him; neither was his heart perfect with the Lord, according to the heart of David his father.
And the Lord said to Solomon, Because it has been thus with thee, and thou hast not kept my commandments and my ordinances which I commanded thee, I will surely rend thy kingdom out of thy hand, and give it to thy servant. Only in thy days I will not do it for David thy father's sake: but I will take it out of the hand of thy son. Only I will not take away the whole kingdom: I will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen.
(1 Kings 11:4-13 Brenton)
This is just an idea that I am tossing around at present. It is subject to change as more clarity comes to mind through continued prayer and study.
A Noticeable Pattern
Each of the generations are laid out similarly following this model creating a noticeable pattern:
And [father's name] lived [number of years], and begat [son's name], And [father's name] lived after his begetting [son's name] [number of years]; and he begat sons and daughters. And all the days of [father's name] were [number of years], and he died.
We see this same layout for Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Malaleel, and Jared. But then there's a disruption to the pattern when we get to the 7th generation, that being of Enoch.
Enoch Was Well-Pleasing to God
Verses 21-24 says:
And Enoch lived an hundred and sixty and five years, and begat Mathusala. And Enoch was well-pleasing to God after his begetting Mathusala, two hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty and five years. And Enoch was well-pleasing to God, and was not found, because God translated him.
(Genesis 5:21-24 Brenton)
Notice the departures from the pattern. The added detail of Enoch being well-pleasing to God is stated twice, and the fact that he died is omitted and replaced with was not found, because God translated him.
Enoch is not mentioned anywhere else in the Old Testament, but he is mentioned in the apocryphal book, The Wisdom of Sirach, in a list of famous men, who are identified as our fathers that begat us.
And then Enoch is mentioned twice in the New Testament. Once by the author of Hebrews in chapter 11, and the other in the letter of Jude:
By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God. But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.
(Hebrews 11:5-6 KJV)
And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.
(Jude 1:14-15 KJV)
Notice in Jude's letter, Enoch is identified as being the seventh from Adam, and we can clearly see that he is the seventh generation of man from Adam. Furthermore, Jude quotes him as having prophesied something, but where is this prophecy found?
The Book of Enoch
The Book of Enoch, or sometimes called Enoch, the Prophet or 1 Enoch, is comprised of several books that were preserved in the Ethiopian Bible. This citation is from the first chapter of The Book of the Watchers in that book.
After bringing this book to light in the western culture during the turn of the 20th century, a remarkable discovery surfaced within Biblical archeology, known as the Dead Sea Scrolls or DSS for short.
There were many copies of fragments from the Book of Enoch dating back to before Jesus was born contained in this found buried treasure, giving credibility to the authenticity of it being an ancient text.
Furthermore, after reading through the text, I believe the authors of the New Testament must have been familiar with its contents given the similarities in their writings.
Why this book was omitted from the Biblical canon, I don't fully understand. But it seems to hold the key to unlocking a host of unsolved mysteries throughout not just the New Testament, but the Old Testament as well.
I personally believe the Book of Enoch is foundational for the whole Bible. Therefore I strongly recommend the study of it in conjunction with the Bible.
While I believe the case against the notion of a virgin conception/birth can be made without reference to Enoch, my aim is to not just demonstrate how the Bible dismantles the doctrine, but also to encourage and inform those seeking to understand:
- Why Jesus was so often referred to as the son of man throughout the New Testament.
- Where the evil spirits, aka demons came from, and why they feared Jesus.
- What the demons were talking about with Jesus concerning their time.
- How Jesus could accomplish what the Bible says he did (or will do in the future) without himself being God.
So, I will be including references along the way as to what Enoch says, as I see it relates directly to the dismantling of the Virgin Birth Doctrine. Also, there is a separate Bonus page that houses several passages from several extra-Biblical books, which I believe are worth consideration.
The Prophecy of Sevens
In chapters 92-93 of The Book of Dream Visions in The Book of Enoch, the author writes, the Holy and Great One has appointed days for all things, and then proceeds to lay out what is commonly referred to as The Prophecy of Weeks.
In it he lays out a series of what I believe to be ten sevens of physical generations of man. The opening statement begins by saying:
And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: "I was born the seventh in the first week, while judgement and righteousness still endured. (1 Enoch 93:3 RH Charles)
Some understand these generations to be a fixed number of years, such as a generation of 70 years. However, given this opening key, I believe this is particularly speaking of physical generations of men being born in a particular sequence, in a particular genealogical line.
For example, Enoch is identified here as being born the seventh in the first week. Jude identifies him as being the seventh from Adam, which we can see is the case from this genealogy in Genesis 5:
1-Adam, 2-Seth, 3-Enos, 4-Cainan, 5-Malaleel, 6-Jared, 7-Enoch
While I feel pretty comfortable with identifying who some of the notable men are from the dream vision (aka prophecy), using the Bible as my source, I don't know who all of them are.
For the sake of further demonstration of my thought that this prophecy applies to generations of men, fathers begetting sons, as opposed to just a series of a fixed number of years as others have postulated, I lay out the next four weeks on the Dismantling the Virgin Birth Doctrine from Extra-Biblical Texts page.
My point in bringing up this prophecy is to demonstrate how God spoke through the prophets long before things came to pass concerning future events, and He used the natural means of human generations as a timeline for these events to occur.
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And it came to pass when men began to be numerous upon the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God having seen the daughters of men that they were beautiful, took to themselves wives of all whom they chose. And the Lord God said, My Spirit shall certainly not remain among these men for ever, because they are flesh, but their days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
Now the giants were upon the earth in those days; and after that when the sons of God were wont to go in to the daughters of men, they bore children to them, those were the giants of old, the men of renown.
And the Lord God, having seen that the wicked actions of men were multiplied upon the earth, and that every one in his heart was intently brooding over evil continually, then God laid it to heart that he had made man upon the earth, and he pondered it deeply. And God said, I will blot out man whom I have made from the face of the earth, even man with cattle, and reptiles with flying creatures of the sky, for I am grieved that I have made them.
(Genesis 6:2-8 Brenton)
The Sons of God
According to the Book of Enoch, the sons of God here are identified as angels, the children of heaven.
When looking for other references to "sons of God" in the Old Testament, translated from the Hebrew Masoretic Text, we see them referenced in Job:
Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
(Job 1:6 KJV)
Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD.
(Job 2:1 KJV)
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
(Job 38:6-7 KJV)
When we cross reference these texts to the Greek Septuagint, which is a translation of an earlier Hebrew text, we see them referred to as angels:
And it came to pass on a day, that behold, the angels of God came to stand before the Lord, and the devil came with them.
(Job 1:6 Brenton)
And it came to pass on a certain day, that the angels of God came to stand before the Lord, and the devil came among them to stand before the Lord.
(Job 2:1 Brenton)
On what are its rings fastened? and who is he that laid the corner-stone upon it? When the stars were made, all my angels praised me with a loud voice.
(Job 38:6-7 Brenton)
And there are two more references in the Septuagint of "the angels of God" found in Deuteronomy 32, along with a reference to "the sons of God":
When the Most High divided the nations, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God.
(Deuteronomy 32:8 Brenton)
Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people.
(Deuteronomy 32:43 Brenton)
It appears to me that God is the Maker of two sets of beings: heavenly beings and earthly beings. The heavenly beings are those who reside in heaven and are made immortal. These beings are often referred to as angels, or watchers and holy ones as seen in the book of Daniel.
I beheld in the night vision upon my bed, and, behold, a watcher and an holy one came down from heaven and cried aloud, and thus he said, Cut down the tree, and pluck off its branches, and shake off its leaves, and scatter its fruit: let the wild beasts be removed from under it, and the birds from its branches. Only leave the stump of its roots in the earth, and bind it with an iron and brass band; and it shall lie in the grass that is without and in the dew of heaven, and its portion shall be with the wild beasts in the grass of the field. His heart shall be changed from that of man, and the heart of a wild beast shall be given to him; and seven times shall pass over him. The matter is by the decree of the watcher, and the demand is a word of the holy ones; that the living may known that the Lord is most high over the kingdom of men, and he will give it to whomsoever he shall please, and will set up over it that which is set at nought of men.
This is the vision which I king Nabuchodonosor saw: and do thou, Baltasar, declare the interpretation, for none of the wise men of my kingdom are able to shew me the interpretation of it: but thou, Daniel, art able; for the Holy Spirit of God is in thee.
Then Daniel, whose name is Baltasar, was amazed about one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. And Baltasar answered and said, My lord, let the dream be to them that hate thee, and the interpretation of it to thine enemies. The tree which thou sawest, that grew large and strong, whose height reached to the sky and its extent to all the earth; and whose leaves were flourishing, and its fruit abundant, (and it was meat for all; under it the wild beasts lodged, and the birds of the sky took shelter in its branches:) is thyself, O king; for thou art grown great and powerful, and thy greatness has increased and reached to heaven, and thy dominion to the ends of the earth.
And whereas the king saw a watcher and a holy one coming down from heaven, and he said, Strip the tree, and destroy it; only leave the stump of its roots in the ground, and bind it with a band of iron and brass; and it shall lie in the grass that is without, and in the dew of heaven, and its portion shall be with wild beasts, until seven times have passed over it; this is the interpretation of it, O king, and it is a decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king. And they shall drive thee forth from men, and thy dwelling shall be with wild beasts, and they shall feed thee with grass as an ox, and thou shall have thy lodging under the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, until thou known that the Most High is Lord of the kingdom of men, and will give it to whom he shall please.
And whereas they said, Leave the stumps of the roots of the tree; thy kingdom abides sure to thee from the time that thou shalt know the power of the heavens. Therefore, O king, let my counsel please thee, and atone for thy sins by alms, and thine iniquities by compassion on the poor: it may be God will be long-suffering to thy trespasses.
(Daniel 4:10-24 Brenton)
And the earthly beings are those who reside in the land and were also made to be immortal, but through the sin of Adam, suffer the consequence of death, being denied access to the tree of life. These beings are described as having been made in the image and likeness of God in Genesis 1 and 2, similar to how Seth is described as having been begotten of Adam in Genesis 5.
Given that God is the progenitor of them both, I can see them both being identified as "the sons" of God. But which sons of God are being referenced in Genesis 6: angels, who left their heavenly abode, or the sons of Seth, as some teachings purport?
According to Jude, we read what I believe to be a reference to this episode:
Beloved, all diligence using to write to you concerning the common salvation, I had necessity to write to you, exhorting to agonize for the faith once delivered to the saints, for there did come in unobserved certain men, long ago having been written beforehand to this judgment, impious, the grace of our God perverting to lasciviousness, and our only Master, God, and Lord—Jesus Christ—denying, and to remind you I intend, you knowing once this, that the Lord, a people out of the land of Egypt having saved, again those who did not believe did destroy; messengers also, those who did not keep their own principality, but did leave their proper dwelling, to a judgment of a great day, in bonds everlasting, under darkness He hath kept, as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them, in like manner to these, having given themselves to whoredom, and gone after other flesh, have been set before—an example, of fire age-during, justice suffering.
(Jude 1:3-7 YLT)
Notice the comparison to Sodom and Gomorrah saying in like manner to these, having gone after other flesh. I used to think this was a reference to homosexuality, but this says that they went after other flesh. Consider what we're told concerning what took place in Sodom at the time of their fiery judgment:
And the two angels came to Sodom at evening. And Lot sat by the gate of Sodom, and Lot having seen them, rose up to meet them, and he worshipped with his face to the ground, and said, Lo! my lords, turn aside to the house of your servant, and rest from your journey, and wash your feet, and having risen early in the morning ye shall depart on your journey. And they said, Nay, but we will lodge in the street. And he constrained them, and they turned aside to him, and they entered into his house, and he made a feast for them, and baked unleavened cakes for them, and they did eat.
But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the Sodomites, compassed the house, both young and old, all the people together. And they called out Lot, and said to him, Where are the men that went in to thee this night? bring them out to us that we may be with them.
And Lot went out to them to the porch, and he shut the door after him, and said to them, By no means, brethren, do not act villanously. But I have two daughters, who have not known a man. I will bring them out to you, and do ye use them as it may please you, only do not injury to these men, to avoid which they came under the shelter of my roof. And they said to him, Stand back there, thou camest in to sojourn, was it also to judge? Now then we would harm thee more than them. And they pressed hard on the man, even Lot, and they drew nigh to break the door.
And the men stretched forth their hands and drew Lot in to them into the house, and shut the door of the house. And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great, and they were wearied with seeking the door.
(Genesis 19:1-11 Brenton)
These were angels, sons of God of the heavenly kind, who were staying with Lot, and the men of Sodom were seeking to go after their flesh. While the Sodomites may not have been aware that these were heavenly beings, the fact that they sought to be with them demonstrates they were going after other flesh.
Then later in Jude's letter, the author quotes from the Prophet Enoch demonstrating he was likely familiar with his words found in the Book of the Watchers. Thereby, it seems to me that the sons of God in Genesis 6 were believed to be heavenly beings, fallen angels, as Enoch purports.
The Men of Renown
If we are to believe the words of Enoch and understand the sons of God who took to themselves wives from the daughters of men and bore children to them were heavenly beings, then who might these offspring be that are identified as the giants of old, the men of renown?
As one example, according to Wikipedia:
In Greek mythology, the Titans and Titanesses were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympian deities. Based on Mount Othrys, the Titans most famously included the first twelve children of the primordial Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (Father Sky). They were giant deities of incredible strength, who ruled during the legendary Golden Age, and also comprised the first pantheon of Greek deities.
It appears to me that the Greek thought is that the Titans were a product of the mating of heaven and earth, essentially the sons of God (heavenly beings) mating with the daughters of man (earthly beings). And that would be deemed wicked in the sight of the Creator God, according to the book of Enoch, and evidently according to the book of Genesis as well, given what we read in the verses that follow this account in chapter 6:
And the Lord God, having seen that the wicked actions of men were multiplied upon the earth, and that every one in his heart was intently brooding over evil continually, then God laid it to heart that he had made man upon the earth, and he pondered it deeply.
And God said, I will blot out man whom I have made from the face of the earth, even man with cattle, and reptiles with flying creatures of the sky, for I am grieved that I have made them.
(Genesis 6:6-8 Brenton)
Since this appears to be a precursor to the great flood that was set to destroy all life on the face of the earth, it makes no sense for the Creator, who condemned that activity, to do essentially the same thing: coupling heaven with earth to produce offspring in an unnatural way, as the Virgin Birth doctrine teaches.
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But Noe found grace before the Lord God.
And these are the generations of Noe. Noe was a just man; being perfect in his generation, Noe was well-pleasing to God. And Noe begot three sons, Sem, Cham, Japheth. But the earth was corrupted before God, and the earth was filled with iniquity. And the Lord God saw the earth, and it was corrupted; because all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth.
And the Lord God said to Noe, A period of all men is come before me; because the earth has been filled with iniquity by them, and, behold, I destroy them and the earth. Make therefore for thyself an ark of square timber; thou shalt make the ark in compartments, and thou shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And thus shalt thou make the ark; three hundred cubits the length of the ark, and fifty cubits the breadth, and thirty cubits the height of it. Thou shalt narrow the ark in making it, and in a cubit above thou shalt finish it, and the door of the ark thou shalt make on the side; with lower, second, and third stories thou shalt make it.
And behold I bring a flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life under heaven, and whatsoever things are upon the earth shall die. And I will establish my covenant with thee, and thou shalt enter into the ark, and thy sons and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. And of all cattle and of all reptiles and of all wild beasts, even of all flesh, thou shalt bring by pairs of all, into the ark, that thou mayest feed them with thyself: male and female they shall be. Of all winged birds after their kind, and of all cattle after their kind, and of all reptiles creeping upon the earth after their kind, pairs of all shall come in to thee, male and female to be fed with thee. And thou shalt take to thyself of all kinds of food which ye eat, and thou shalt gather them to thyself, and it shall be for thee and them to eat. And Noe did all things whatever the Lord God commanded him, so did he.
(Genesis 6:9-23 Brenton)
And the Lord God said to Noe, Enter thou and all thy family into the ark, for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. And of the clean cattle take in to thee sevens, male and female, and of the unclean cattle pairs male and female. And of clean flying creatures of the sky sevens, male and female, and of all unclean flying creatures pairs, male and female, to maintain seed on all the earth. For yet seven days having passed I bring rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and I will blot out every offspring which I have made from the face of all the earth. And Noe did all things whatever the Lord God commanded him.
And Noe was six hundred years old when the flood of water was upon the earth. And then went in Noe and his sons and his wife, and his sons' wives with him into the ark, because of the water of the flood. And of clean flying creatures and of unclean flying creatures, and of clean cattle and of unclean cattle, and of all things that creep upon the earth, pairs went in to Noe into the ark, male and female, as God commanded Noe.
And it came to pass after the seven days that the water of the flood came upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of the life of Noe, in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, on this day all the fountains of the abyss were broken up, and the flood-gates of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
On that very day entered Noe, Sem, Cham, Japheth, the sons of Noe, and the wife of Noe, and the three wives of his sons with him into the ark. And all the wild beasts after their kind, and all cattle after their kind, and every reptile moving itself on the earth after its kind, and every flying bird after its kind, went in to Noe into the ark, pairs, male and female of all flesh in which is the breath of life. And they that entered went in male and female of all flesh, as God commanded Noe, and the Lord God shut the ark outside of him.
And the flood was upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and the water abounded greatly and bore up the ark, and it was lifted on high from off the earth. And the water prevailed and abounded exceedingly upon the earth, and the ark was borne upon the water. And the water prevailed exceedingly upon the earth, and covered all the high mountains which were under heaven. Fifteen cubits upwards was the water raised, and it covered all the high mountains.
And there died all flesh that moved upon the earth, of flying creatures and cattle, and of wild beasts, and every reptile moving upon the earth, and every man. And all things which have the breath of life, and whatever was on the dry land, died.
And God blotted out every offspring which was upon the face of the earth, both man and beast, and reptiles, and birds of the sky, and they were blotted out from the earth, and Noe was left alone, and those with him in the ark. And the water was raised over the earth an hundred and fifty days.
(Genesis 7:1-24 Brenton)
Well-Pleasing to God
Noah is described the same as Enoch, as being well-pleasing to God. This was after his being identified as finding grace (or favor) before the Lord God and being a just man. It appears that he was a son of God, of the earthly kind. And he was chosen, with his family to be spared from the coming destruction upon the land.
Noah was instructed to build an ark, and he was told that God would establish a covenant with him. He and his family, along with representatives of different species of animal life, which included both male and female, were to reside in the ark, and he was to gather all kinds of food to meet the needs of all those on board.
In chapter 7 when Noah is instructed to bring in clean and unclean animals in sevens and pairs, respectively, with them on the ark, he's told to bring male and female of each, to maintain seed on all the earth.
I believe this demonstrates how both mankind and animalkind, all which breathe the breath of life, have been blessed with the ability to reproduce after like kind by way of seed, not requiring the need for the Creator to create again.
Male and Female of All Flesh
Notice the multiple mentions of male and female of all flesh. It is clear God's intention was for all flesh in which is the breath of life, who entered the ark, not only to be preserved but also to be fruitful and multiply in the future, given there being in pairs: male and female.
So with the rescue of Noah and his family, as well as the various species of animals and their kinds, God's promises of fruitfulness, and dominion for mankind, established in the beginning, remained in tact:
And God made man, according to the image of God he made him, male and female he made them. And God blessed them, saying, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the seas and flying creatures of heaven, and all the cattle and all the earth, and all the reptiles that creep on the earth.
(Genesis 1:27-28 Brenton)
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