And God made man, according to the image of God he made him, male and female he made them.
And God blessed them, saying, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the seas and flying creatures of heaven, and all the cattle and all the earth, and all the reptiles that creep on the earth.
And God said, Behold I have given to you every seed-bearing herb sowing seed which is upon all the earth, and every tree which has in itself the fruit of seed that is sown, to you it shall be for food. And to all the wild beasts of the earth, and to all the flying creatures of heaven, and to every reptile creeping on the earth, which has in itself the breath of life, even every green plant for food; and it was so.
(Genesis 1:27-30 Brenton)
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After the Flood
And Noe built an altar to the Lord, and took of all clean beasts, and of all clean birds, and offered a whole burnt-offering upon the altar. And the Lord God smelled a smell of sweetness, and the Lord God having considered, said, I will not any more curse the earth, because of the works of men, because the imagination of man is intently bent upon evil things from his youth, I will not therefore any more smite all living flesh as I have done. All the days of the earth, seed and harvest, cold and heat, summer and spring, shall not cease by day or night.
(Genesis 8:20-22 Brenton)
And God blessed Noe and his sons, and said to them, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and have dominion over it. And the dread and the fear of you shall be upon all the wild beasts of the earth, on all the birds of the sky, and on all things moving upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea, I have placed them under you power. And every reptile which is living shall be to you for meat, I have given all things to you as the green herbs. But flesh with blood of life ye shall not eat.
For your blood of your lives will I require at the hand of all wild beasts, and I will require the life of man at the hand of his brother man. He that sheds man's blood, instead of that blood shall his own be shed, for in the image of God I made man. But do ye increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and have dominion over it.
And God spoke to Noe, and to his sons with him, saying, And behold I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you, and with every living creature with you, of birds and of beasts, and with all the wild beasts of the earth, as many as are with you, of all that come out of the ark. And I will establish my covenant with you and all flesh shall not any more die by the water of the flood, and there shall no more be a flood of water to destroy all the earth.
And the Lord God said to Noe, This is the sign of the covenant which I set between me and you, and between every living creature which is with you for perpetual generations. I set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of covenant between me and the earth.
And it shall be when I gather clouds upon the earth, that my bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you, and between every living soul in all flesh, and there shall no longer be water for a deluge, so as to blot out all flesh. And my bow shall be in the cloud, and I will look to remember the everlasting covenant between me and the earth, and between every living soul in all flesh, which is upon the earth. And God said to Noe, This is the sign of the covenant, which I have made between me and all flesh, which is upon the earth.
(Genesis 9:1-17 Brenton)
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And the Lord said to Abram, Go forth out of thy land and out of thy kindred, and out of the house of thy father, and come into the land which I will shew thee.
And I will make thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless those that bless thee, and curse those that curse thee, and in thee shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed.
And Abram went as the Lord spoke to him, and Lot departed with him, and Abram was seventy-five years old, when he went out of Charrhan. And Abram took Sara his wife, and Lot the son of his brother, and all their possessions, as many as they had got, and every soul which they had got in Charrhan, and they went forth to go into the land of Chanaan.
And Abram traversed the land lengthwise as far as the place Sychem, to the high oak, and the Chananites then inhabited the land. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, I will give this land to thy seed. And Abram built an altar there to the Lord who appeared to him.
(Genesis 12:1-7 Brenton)
And after these things the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram, I shield thee, thy reward shall be very great. And Abram said, Master and Lord, what wilt thou give me? whereas I am departing without a child, but the son of Masek my home-born female slave, this Eliezer of Damascus is mine heir. And Abram said, I am grieved since thou hast given me no seed, but my home-born servant shall succeed me.
And immediately there was a voice of the Lord to him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come out of thee shall be thine heir. And he brought him out and said to him, Look up now to heaven, and count the stars, if thou shalt be able to number them fully, and he said, Thus shall thy seed be. And Abram believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness.
And he said to him, I am God that brought thee out of the land of the Chaldeans, so as to give thee this land to inherit. And he said, Master and Lord, how shall I know that I shall inherit it? And he said to him, Take for me an heifer in her third year, and a she-goat in her third year, and a ram in his third year, and a dove and a pigeon.
So he took to him all these, and divided them in the midst, and set them opposite to each other, but the birds he did not divide. And birds came down upon the bodies, even upon the divided parts of them, and Abram sat down by them. And about sunset a trance fell upon Abram, and lo! a great gloomy terror falls upon him. And it was said to Abram, Thou shalt surely know that thy seed shall be a sojourner in a land not their won, and they shall enslave them, and afflict them, and humble them four hundred years. And the nation whomsoever they shall serve I will judge; and after this, they shall come forth hither with much property. But thou shalt depart to thy fathers in peace, nourished in a good old age. And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the sins of the Amorites are not yet filled up, even until now.
And when the sun was about to set, there was a flame, and behold a smoking furnace and lamps of fire, which passed between these divided pieces. In that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, To thy seed I will give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates. The Kenites, and the Kenezites, and the Kedmoneans, and the Chettites, and the Pherezites, and the Raphaim, and the Amorites, and the Chananites, and the Evites, and the Gergesites, and the Jebusites.
(Genesis 15:1-21 Brenton)
And Abram was ninety-nine years old, and the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, I am thy God, be well-pleasing before me, and be blameless. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly.
And Abram fell upon his face, and God spoke to him, saying, And I, behold! my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of a multitude of nations. And thy name shall no more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraam, for I have made thee a father of many nations. And I will increase thee very exceedingly, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.
And I will establish my covenant between thee and thy seed after thee, to their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be thy God, and the God of thy seed after thee. And I will give to thee and to thy seed after thee the land wherein thou sojournest, even all the land of Chanaan for an everlasting possession, and I will be to them a God.
And God said to Abraam, Thou also shalt fully keep my covenant, thou and thy seed after thee for their generations. And this is the covenant which thou shalt fully keep between me and you, and between thy seed after thee for their generations; every male of you shall be circumcised. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between me and you.
And the child of eight days old shall be circumcised by you, every male throughout your generations, and the servant born in the house and he that is bought with money, of every son of a stranger, who is not of thy seed. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with money shall be surely circumcised, and my covenant shall be on your flesh for an everlasting covenant.
And the uncircumcised male, who shall not be circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul shall be utterly destroyed from its family, for he has broken my covenant.
(Genesis 17:1-14 Brenton)
And God said to Abraam, Sara thy wife—her name shall not be called Sara, Sarrha shall be her name. And I will bless her, and give thee a son of her, and I will bless him, and he shall become nations, and kings of nations shall be of him.
And Abraam fell upon his face, and laughed; and spoke in his heart, saying, Shall there be a child to one who is a hundred years old, and shall Sarrha who is ninety years old, bear? And Abraam said to God, Let this Ismael live before thee.
And God said to Abraam, Yea, behold, Sarrha thy wife shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac; and I will establish my covenant with him, for an everlasting covenant, to be a God to him and to his seed after him.
And concerning Ismael, behold, I have heard thee, and, behold, I have blessed him, and will increase him and multiply him exceedingly; twelve nations shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarrha shall bear to thee at this time, in the next year.
And he left off speaking with him, and God went up from Abraam.
(Genesis 17:15-22 Brenton)
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And there was a famine in the land, besides the former famine, which was in the time of Abraam; and Isaac went to Abimelech the king of the Phylistines to Gerara. And the Lord appeared to him and said, Go not down to Egypt, but dwell in the land, which I shall tell thee of. And sojourn in this land; and I will be with thee, and bless thee, for I will give to thee and to thy seed all this land; and I will establish my oath which I swore to thy father Abraam. And I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven; and I will give to thy seed all this land, and all the nations of the earth shall be blest in thy seed. Because Abraam thy father hearkened to my voice, and kept my injunctions, and my commandments, and my ordinances, and my statutes.
(Genesis 26:1-5 Brenton)
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And Jacob went forth from the well of the oath, and departed into Charrhan. And came to a certain place and slept there, for the sun had gone down; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it at his head, and lay down to sleep in that place, and dreamed, and behold a ladder fixed on the earth, whose top reached to heaven, and the angels of God ascended and descended on it.
And the Lord stood upon it, and said, I am the God of thy father Abraam, and the God of Isaac; fear not, the land on which thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed. And thy seed shall be as the sand of the earth; and it shall spread abroad to the sea, and the south, and the north, and to the east; and in thee and in thy seed shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed. And behold I am with thee to preserve thee continually in all the way wherein thou shalt go; and I will bring thee back to this land; for I will not desert thee, until I have done all that I have said to thee.
And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and said, The Lord is in this place, and I knew it not. And he was afraid, and said, How fearful is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.
And Jacob rose up in the morning, and took the stone he had laid there by his head, and he set it up as a pillar, and poured oil on the top of it. And he called the name of that place, the House of God; and the name of the city before was Ulam-luz. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If the Lord God will be with me, and guard me throughout on this journey, on which I am going, and give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, and bring me back in safety to the house of my father, then shall the Lord be for a God to me. And this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be to me a house of God; and of all whatsoever thou shalt give me, I will tithe a tenth for thee.
(Genesis 28:10-22 Brenton)
And he rose up in that night, and took his two wives and his two servant-maids, and his eleven children, and crossed over the ford of Jaboch. And he took them, and passed over the torrent, and brought over all his possessions.
And Jacob was left alone; and a man wrestled with him till the morning. And he saw that he prevailed not against him; and he touched the broad part of his thigh, and the broad part of Jacob's thigh was benumbed in his wrestling with him. And he said to him, Let me go, for the day has dawned; but he said, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. And he said to him, What is thy name? and he answered, Jacob. And he said to him, Thy name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; for thou hast prevailed with God, and shalt be mighty with men.
And Jacob asked and said, Tell me thy name; and he said, Wherefore dost thou ask after my name? and he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of that place, the Face of God; for, said he, I have seen God face to face, and my life was preserved. And the sun rose upon him, when he passed the Face of God; and he halted upon his thigh.
Therefore the children of Israel will by no means eat of the sinew which was benumbed, which is on the broad part of the thigh, until this day, because the angel touched the broad part of the thigh of Jacob—even the sinew which was benumbed.
(Genesis 32:22-32 Brenton)
And God said to Jacob, Arise, go up to the place, Baethel, and dwell there; and make there an altar to the God that appeared to thee, when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother.
And Jacob said to his house, and to all that were with him, Remove the strange gods that are with you from the midst of you, and purify yourselves, and change your clothes. And let us rise and go up to Baethel, and let us there make an alter to God who hearkened to me in the day of calamity, who was with me, and preserved me throughout in the journey, by which I went.
And they gave to Jacob the strange gods, which were in their hands, and the ear-rings which were in their ears, and Jacob hid them under the turpentine tree which is in Secima, and destroyed them to this day. So Israel departed from Secima, and the fear of God was upon the cities round about them, and they did not pursue after the children of Israel.
And Jacob came to Luza, which is in the land of Chanaan, which is Baethel, he and all the people that were with him. And he built there an altar, and called the name of the place Baethel; for there God appeared to him, when he fled from the face of his brother Esau. And Deborrha, Rebecca's nurse, died, and was buried below Baethel under the oak; and Jacob called its name, The Oak of Mourning.
And God appeared to Jacob once more in Luza, when he came out of Mesopotamia of Syria, and God blessed him. And God said to him, Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; and he called his name Israel. And God said to him, I am thy God; increase and multiply; for nations and gatherings of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins. And the land which I gave to Abraam and Isaac, I have given it to thee; and it shall come to pass that I will give this land also to thy seed after thee.
And God went up from him from the place where he spoke with him. And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where God spoke with him, even a pillar of stone; and offered a libation upon it, and poured oil upon it. And Jacob called the name of the place in which God spoke with him, Baethel.
(Genesis 35:1-15 Brenton)
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And Jacob called his sons, and said to them, Assemble yourselves, that I may tell you what shall happen to you in the last days. Gather yourselves together, and hear me, sons of Jacob; hear Israel, hear your father.
Ruben, thou art my first-born, thou my strength, and the first of my children, hard to be endured, hard and self-willed. Thou wast insolent like water, burst not forth with violence, for thou wentest up to the bed of thy father; then thou defiledst the couch, whereupon thou wentest up.
Symeon and Levi, brethren, accomplished the injustice of their cutting off. Let not my soul come into their counsel, and let not mine inward parts contend in their conspiracy, for in their wrath they slew men, and in their passion they houghed a bull. Cursed be their wrath, for it was willful, and their anger, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
Juda, thy brethren have praised thee, and thy hands shall be on the back of thine enemies; thy father's sons shall do thee reverence. Juda is a lion's whelp: from the tender plant, my son, thou art gone up, having couched thou liest as a lion, and as a whelp; who shall stir him up? A ruler shall not fail from Juda, nor a prince from his loins, until there come the things stored up for him; and he is the expectation of nations. Binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the branch of it, he shall wash his robe in wine, and his garment in the blood of the grape. His eyes shall be more cheering than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk.
(Genesis 49:1-12 Brenton)
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And it came to pass when the king sat in his house, and the Lord had given him an inheritance on every side free from all his enemies round about him; that the king said to Nathan the prophet, Behold now, I live in a house of cedar, and the ark of the Lord dwells in the midst of a tent. And Nathan said to the king, Go and do all that is in thine heart, for the Lord is with thee.
And it came to pass in that night, that the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying, Go, and say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord, Thou shalt not build me a house for me to dwell in. For I have not dwelt in a house from the day that I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt to this day, but I have been walking in a lodge and in a tent, wheresoever I went with all Israel. Have I ever spoken to any of the tribes of Israel, which I commanded to tend my people Israel, saying, Why have ye not built me a house of Cedar?
And now thus shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord Almighty, I took thee from the sheep-cote, that thou shouldest be a prince over my people, over Israel. And I was with thee wheresoever thou wentest, and I destroyed all thine enemies before thee, and I made thee renowned according to the renown of the great ones on the earth. And I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, and they shall dwell by themselves, and shall be no more distressed; and the son of iniquity shall no more afflict them, as he has done from the beginning, from the days when I appointed judges over my people Israel: and I will give thee rest from all thine enemies, and the Lord will tell thee that thou shalt build a house to him.
And it shall come to pass when thy days shall have been fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, even thine own issue, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build for me a house to my name, and I will set up his throne even for ever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. And when he happens to transgress, then will I chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the sons of men. But my mercy I will not take from him, as I took it from those whom I removed from my presence. And his house shall be made sure, and his kingdom for ever before me, and his throne shall be set up for ever.
According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David.
(2 Samuel 7:1-17 Brenton)
And it shall come to pass when thy days shall be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build me a house, and I will set up his throne for ever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son: and my mercy will I not withdraw from him, as I withdrew it from them that were before thee. And I will establish him in my house and in his kingdom for ever; and his throne shall be set up for ever.
According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so spoke Nathan to David.
(1 Chronicles 17:11-15 Brenton)
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The word translated as prophet ["navi" (H5030) in Hebrew, and "prophetes" (G4396) in Greek] means spokesman, speaker, prophet. This word is first used in the Bible in reference to Abraham.
And Abraam removed thence to the southern country, and dwelt between Cades and Sur, and sojourned in Gerara. And Abraam said concerning Sarrha his wife, She is my sister, for he feared to say, She is my wife, lest at any time the men of the city should kill him for her sake. So Abimelech king of Gerara sent and took Sarrha.
And God came to Abimelech by night in sleep, and said, Behold, thou diest for the woman, whom thou hast taken, whereas she has lived with a husband. But Abimelech had not touched her, and he said, Lord, wilt thou destroy an ignorantly sinning and just nation? Said he not to me, She is my sister, and said she not to me, He is my brother? with a pure heart and in the righteousness of my hands have I done this.
And God said to him in sleep, Yea, I knew that thou didst this with a pure heart, and I spared thee, so that thou shouldest not sin against me, therefore I suffered thee not to touch her. But now return the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; but if thou restore her not, know that thou shalt die and all thine.
And Abraam prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his women servants, and they bore children. Because the Lord had fast closed from without every womb in the house of Abimelech, because of Sarrha Abraam's wife.
(Genesis 20:1-7,17-18 Brenton)
The word is next used to describe Aaron's role, or position, in relation to Moses, for when the two of them go before Pharaoh of Egypt. Aaron was chosen to be the spokesman or speaker for Moses.
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Behold, I have made thee a god to Pharao, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
(Exodus 7:1 Brenton)
With the next mention we see that when the spirit of YHVH is put upon the people, they all prophesy. There are examples of that all throughout the entire Bible. Given Moses' answer to Joshua below, it appears the idea was for all of YHVH's people to become prophets whenever YHVH puts His spirit on them.
And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spoke to him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and put it upon the seventy men that were elders; and when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied and ceased.
And there were two men left in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Modad; and the spirit rested upon them, and these were of the number of them that were enrolled, but they did not come to the tabernacle; and they prophesied in the camp.
And a young man ran and told Moses, and spoke, saying, Eldad and Modad prophesy in the camp. And Joshua the son of Naue, who attended on Moses, the chosen one, said, My lord Moses, forbid them. And Moses said to him, Art thou jealous on my account? and would that all the Lord's people were prophets; whenever the Lord shall put his spirit upon them. And Moses departed into the camp, himself and the elders of Israel.
(Numbers 11:25-30 Brenton)
The next mention pertains to Moses. YHVH explains how He speaks to other prophets through visions and dreams, whereas with Moses he speaks to him mouth to mouth apparently, and not in dark speeches.
And Mariam and Aaron spoke against Moses, because of the Ethiopian woman whom Moses took; for he had taken an Ethiopian woman. And they said, Has the Lord spoken to Moses only? has he not also spoken to us? and the Lord heard it. And the man Moses was very meek beyond all the men that were upon the earth.
And the Lord said immediately to Moses and Aaron and Mariam, Come forth all three of you to the tabernacle of witness. And the three came forth to the tabernacle of witness; and the Lord descended in a pillar of a cloud, and stood at the door of the tabernacle of witness; and Aaron and Mariam were called; and both came forth.
And he said to them, Hear my words: If there should be of you a prophet to the Lord, I will be made known to him in a vision, and in sleep will I speak to him. My servant Moses is not so; he is faithful in all my house. I will speak to him mouth to mouth apparently, and not in dark speeches; and he has seen the glory of the Lord; and why were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses? And the great anger of the Lord was upon them, and he departed.
And the cloud departed from the tabernacle; and, behold, Mariam was leprous, white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Mariam, and, behold, she was leprous. And Aaron said to Moses, I beseech thee, my lord, do not lay sin upon us, for we were ignorant wherein we sinned. Let her not be as it were like death, as an abortion coming out of his mother's womb, when the disease devours the half of the flesh.
And Moses cried to the Lord, saying, O God, I beseech thee, heal her. And the Lord said to Moses, If her father had only spit in her face, would she not be ashamed seven days? let her be set apart seven days without the camp, and afterwards she shall come in. And Mariam was separated without the camp seven days; and the people moved not forward till Mariam was cleansed.
(Numbers 12:1-15 Brenton)
The next mention pertains to a prophet within the nation of Israel who might use a sign or wonder to lead people away to serve other gods.
And if there arise within thee a prophet, or one who dreams a dream, and he gives thee a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder come to pass which he spoke to thee, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which ye know not; ye shall not hearken to the words of that prophet, or the dreamer of that dream, because the Lord thy God tries you, to know whether ye love your God with all your heart and with all your soul.
Ye shall follow the Lord your God, and fear him, and ye shall hear his voice, and attach yourselves to him. And that prophet or that dreamer of a dream, shall die; for he has spoken to make thee err from the Lord thy God who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, who redeemed thee from bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God commanded thee to walk in: so shalt thou abolish the evil from among you.
(Deuteronomy 13:1-5 Brenton)
The next mentions pertain to a prophet like unto Moses that YHVH says He will raise up from among their brethren, and the people are instructed to heed him when he speaks in His name lest YHVH take vengeance on them.
The Lord thy God shall raise up to thee a prophet of thy brethren, like me; him shall ye hear: according to all things which thou didst desire of the Lord thy God in Choreb in the day of the assembly, saying, We will not again hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and we will not any more see this great fire, and so we shall not die.
And the Lord said to me, They have spoken rightly all that they have said to thee. I will raise up to them a prophet of their brethren, like thee; and
I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them as I shall command him. And whatever man shall not hearken to whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in my name, I will take vengeance on him.
But the prophet whosoever shall impiously speak in my name a word which I have not commanded him to speak, and whosoever shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.
But if thou shalt say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the Lord has not spoken? Whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in the name of the Lord, and they shall not come true, and not come to pass, this is the thing which the Lord has not spoken; that prophet has spoken wickedly: ye shall not spare him.
(Deuteronomy 18:15-22 Brenton)
The last mention of this word in the books of Moses pertains to Moses after his death:
And Moses went up from Araboth Moab to the mount of Nabau, to the top of Phasga, which is before Jericho; and the Lord shewed him all the mount of Galaad to Dan, and all the land of Nephthali, and all the land of Ephraim and Manasse, and all the land of Juda to the farthest sea; and the wilderness, and the country round about Jericho, the city of palm-trees, to Segor.
And the Lord said to Moses, This is the land of which I sware to Abraam, and Isaac, and Jacob, saying, To your seed will I give it: and I have shewed it to thine eyes, but thou shalt not go in thither. So Moses the servant of the Lord died in the land of Moab by the word of the Lord. And they buried him in Gai near the house of Phogor; and no one has seen his sepulchre to this day. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old at his death; his eyes were not dimmed, nor were his natural powers destroyed.
And the children of Israel wept for Moses in Araboth of Moab at Jordan near Jericho thirty days; and the days of the sad mourning for Moses were completed. And Joshua the son of Naue was filled with the spirit of knowledge, for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened to him; and they did as the Lord commanded Moses.
And there rose up no more a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and wonders, which the Lord sent him to work in Egypt on Pharao, and his servants, and all his land; the great wonders, and the mighty hand which Moses displayed before all Israel.
(Deuteronomy 34:1-12 Brenton)
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THE ANOINTED SON: The CHRIST/MESSIAH
One of the first mentions of the word translated as king ["melek" (H4428) in Hebrew] and the first mention of the word translated as priest ["kohen" (H3548) in Hebrew] are found together concerning Melchizedek, King of Salem in Genesis 14.
And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after he returned from the slaughter of Chodollogomor, and the kings with him, to the valley of Saby; this was the plain of the kings.
And Melchisedec king of Salem brought forth loaves and wine, and he was the priest of the most high God. And he blessed Abram, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, who made heaven and earth, and blessed be the most high God who delivered thine enemies into thy power. And Abram gave him the tithe of all.
(Genesis 14:17-20 Brenton)
The name "Melchizedek" [(G3198) in Greek; (H4442) in Hebrew] means king of righteousness, and it only appears twice in the Old Testament: first, in the above passage, and second in Psalm 110. The Hebrew word translated as "Salem" (H8004) means peace.
A Priestly King
This first mention of this person primarily addresses Melchizedek's kingship, given that the entire chapter speaks of kings in confederacy battling with one another, and Abraham, coming to the rescue of his nephew Lot, being delivered from his enemies, and met by the King of Righteousness, King of Peace.
And then it secondly addresses his priesthood, bringing forth bread and wine, being identified as the priest of the Most High God, blessing Abraham, and receiving a tithe of all from him.
Now consider the second mention of Melchizedek in Psalm 110:
A Psalm of David. The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
The Lord shall send out a rod of power for thee out of Sion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
With thee is dominion in the day of thy power, in the splendours of thy saints: I have begotten thee from the womb before the morning.
The Lord sware, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec.
The Lord (YHVH) at thy right hand has dashed in pieces kings in the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the nations, he shall fill up the number of corpses, he shall crush the heads of many on the earth. He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head.
(Psalms 110:1-7 Brenton)
Notice the following elements in this psalm: David's Lord is seated at the right hand of God, while God delivers him from his enemies.
This Lord has been given power, authority to rule (with the statement, rule thou...), and dominion in the day of his power, indicating the role of a king. He is identified as being a son to God, by the statement I have begotten thee from the womb..., and is declared a priest forever, referring to Melchizedek.
The Christ, the Son of God
We're also told in Psalm 110 that kings shall be dashed into pieces in the day of his wrath, and he will judge among the nations. Now, consider Psalm 2.
In this psalm we see a clear mention of "Christ" ["christos" (G5547) in Greek; "mashiyach" (H4899) in Hebrew, often translated as "Messiah"], which means anointed or anointed one, and he is being identified as the Son of God:
Wherefore did the heathen rage, and the nations imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers gathered themselves together, against the Lord, and against his Christ; saying, Let us break through their bonds, and cast away their yoke from us.
He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn, and the Lord shall mock them. Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and trouble them in his fury. But I have been made king by him on Sion his holy mountain, declaring the ordinance of the Lord: the Lord said to me, Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces as a potter's vessel.
Now therefore understand, ye kings: be instructed, all ye that judge the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice in him with trembling. Accept correction, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and ye should perish from the righteous way: whensoever his wrath shall be suddenly kindled, blessed are all they that trust in him.
(Psalms 2:1-12 Brenton)
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The Children of Israel in Egypt
These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt together with Jacob their father; they came in each with their whole family. Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Judas, Issachar, Zabulon, Benjamin, Dan and Nephthalim, Gad and Aser. But Joseph was in Egypt. And all the souls born of Jacob were seventy-five. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. And the children of Israel increased and multiplied, and became numerous and grew exceedingly strong, and the land multiplied them.
And there arose up another king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. And he said to his nation, Behold, the race of the children of Israel is a great multitude, and is stronger than we: come then, let us deal craftily with them, lest at any time they be increased, and whensoever war shall happen to us, these also shall be added to our enemies, and having prevailed against us in war, they will depart out of the land. And he set over them task-masters, who should afflict them in their works; and they built strong cities for Pharao, both Pitho, and Ramesses, and On, which is Heliopolis. But as they humbled them, by so much they multiplied, and grew exceedingly strong; and the Egyptians greatly abhorred the children of Israel.
And the Egyptians tyrannised over the children of Israel by force. And they embittered their life by hard labours, in the clay and in brick-making, and all the works in the plains, according to all the works, wherein they caused them to serve with violence.
And the king of the Egyptians spoke to the midwives of the Hebrews; the name of the one was, Sepphora; and the name of the second, Phua. And he said, When ye do the office of midwives to the Hebrew women, and they are about to be delivered, if it be a male, kill it; but if a female, save it. But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt appointed them; and they saved the male children alive.
And the king of Egypt called the midwives, and said to them, Why is it that ye have done this thing, and saved the male children alive? And the midwives said to Pharao, The Hebrew women are not as the women of Egypt, for they are delivered before the midwives go in to them. So they bore children. And God did well to the midwives, and the people multiplied, and grew very strong. And as the midwives feared God, they established for themselves families. And Pharao charged all his people, saying, Whatever male child shall be born to the Hebrews, cast into the river; and every female, save it alive.
(Exodus 1:1-22 Brenton)
The Birth of Moses
And there was a certain man of the tribe of Levi, who took to wife one of the daughters of Levi. And she conceived, and bore a male child; and having seen that he was fair, they hid him three months. And when they could no longer hide him, his mother took for him an ark, and besmeared it with bitumen, and cast the child into it, and put it in the ooze by the river. And his sister was watching from a distance, to learn what would happen to him.
And the daughter of Pharao came down to the river to bathe; and her maids walked by the river's side, and having seen the ark in the ooze, she sent her maid, and took it up. And having opened it, she sees the babe weeping in the ark: and the daughter of Pharao had compassion on it, and said, This is one of the Hebrew's children.
And his sister said to the daughter of Pharao, Wilt thou that I call to thee a nurse of the Hebrews, and shall she suckle the child for thee? And the daughter of Pharao said, Go: and the young woman went, and called the mother of the child. And the daughter of Pharao said to her, Take care of this child, and suckled it for me, and I will give thee the wages; and the woman took the child, and suckled it.
And when the boy was grown, she brought him to the daughter of Pharao, and he became her son; and she called his name, Moses, saying, I took him out of the water.
(Exodus 2:1-10 Brenton)
Moses Flees to Midian
And it came to pass in that length of time, that Moses having grown, went out to his brethren the sons of Israel: and having noticed their distress, he sees an Egyptian smiting a certain Hebrew of his brethren the children of Israel. And having looked round this way and that way, he sees no one; and he smote the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.
And having gone out the second day he sees two Hebrew men fighting; and he says to the injurer, Wherefore smitest thou thy neighbour? And he said, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? wilt thou slay me as thou yesterday slewest the Egyptian? Then Moses was alarmed, and said, If it be thus, this matter has become known. And Pharao heard this matter, and sought to slay Moses; and Moses departed from the presence of Pharao, and dwelt in the land of Madiam; and having come into the land of Madiam, he sat on the well.
And the priest of Madiam had seven daughters, feeding the flock of their father Jothor; and they came and drew water until they filled their pitchers, to water the flock of their father Jothor. And the shepherds came, and were driving them away; and Moses rose up and rescued them, and drew water for them, and watered their sheep. And they came to Raguel their father; and he said to them, Why have ye come so quickly to-day? And they said, An Egyptian delivered us from the shepherds, and drew water for us and watered our sheep. And he said to his daughters, And where is he? and why have ye left the man? call him therefore, that he may eat bread.
And Moses was established with the man, and he gave Sepphora his daughter to Moses to wife. And the woman conceived and bore a son, and Moses called his name Gersam, saying, I am a sojourner in a strange land.
And in those days after a length of time, the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel groaned because of their tasks, and cried, and their cry because of their tasks went up to God. And God heard their groanings, and God remembered his covenant made with Abraam and Isaac and Jacob. And God looked upon the children of Israel, and was made known to them.
(Exodus 2:11-25 Brenton)
In the previous passage, we see Moses identified by Joshua as the chosen one. That Greek word is "ekelektos". The following excerpt speaks of Moses' calling at his encounter with the burning bush:
And Moses was feeding the flock of Jothor his father-in-law, the priest of Madiam; and he brought the sheep nigh to the wilderness, and came to the mount of Choreb. And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in flaming fire out of the bush, and he sees that the bush burns with fire, —but the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will go near and see this great sight, why the bush is not consumed.
And when the Lord saw that he drew nigh to see, the Lord called him out of the bush, saying, Moses, Moses; and he said, What is it? And he said, Draw not nigh hither: loose thy sandals from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. And he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraam, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and Moses turned away his face, for he was afraid to gaze at God.
And the Lord said to Moses, I have surely seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt, and I have heard their cry caused by their task-masters; for I know their affliction. And I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land, and to bring them into a good and wide land, into a land flowing with milk and honey, into the place of the Chananites, and the Chettites, and Amorites, and Pherezites, and Gergesites, and Evites, and Jebusites. And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come to me, and I have seen the affliction with which the Egyptians afflict them. And now come, I will send thee to Pharao king of Egypt, and thou shalt bring out my people the children of Israel from the land of Egypt.
And Moses said to God, Who am I, that I should go to Pharao king of Egypt, and that I should bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt? And God spoke to Moses, saying, I will be with thee, and this shall be the sign to thee that I shall send thee forth, —when thou bringest out my people out of Egypt, then ye shall serve God in this mountain.
And Moses said to God, Behold, I shall go forth to the children of Israel, and shall say to them, The God of our fathers has sent me to you; and they will ask me, What is his name? What shall I say to them? And God spoke to Moses, saying, I am THE BEING; and he said, Thus shall ye say to the children of Israel, THE BEING has sent me to you.
And God said again to Moses, Thus shalt thou say to the sons of Israel, The Lord God of our fathers, the God of Abraam, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, has sent me to you: this is my name for ever, and my memorial to generations of generations. Go then and gather the elders of the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them, The Lord God of our fathers has appeared to me, the God of Abraam, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, saying, I have surely looked upon you, and upon all the things which have happened to you in Egypt.
And he said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of the Egyptians to the land of the Chananites and the Chettites, and Amorites and Pherezites, and Gergesites, and Evites, and Jebusites, to a land flowing with milk and honey. And they shall hearken to thy voice, and thou and the elders of Israel shall go in to Pharao king of Egypt, and thou shalt say to him, The God of the Hebrews has called us; we will go then a journey of three days into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to our God.
But I know that Pharao king of Egypt will not let you go, save with a mighty hand; and I will stretch out my hand, and smite the Egyptians with all my wonders, which I shall work among them, and after that he will send you forth. And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, and whenever ye shall escape, ye shall not depart empty. But every woman shall ask of her neighbour and fellow lodger, articles of gold and silver, and apparel; and ye shall put them upon your sons and upon your daughters, —and spoil ye the Egyptians.
(Exodus 3:1-22 Brenton)
And Moses answered and said, If they believe me not, and do not hearken to my voice (for they will say, God has not appeared to thee), what shall I say to them?
And the Lord said to him, What is this thing that is in thine hand? and he said, A rod. And he said, Cast it on the ground: and he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from it.
And the Lord said to Moses, Stretch forth thine hand, and take hold of its tail: so he stretched forth his hand and took hold of the tail, and it became a rod in his hand, —that they may believe thee, that the God of thy fathers has appeared to thee, the God of Abraam, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob.
And the Lord said again to him, Put thine hand into thy bosom; and he put his hand into his bosom, and brought his hand out of his bosom, and his hand became as snow. And he said again, Put thy hand into thy bosom; and he put his hand into his bosom, and brought his hand out of his bosom, and it was again restored to the complexion of his other flesh. And if they will not believe thee, nor hearken to the voice of the first sign, they will believe thee because of the voice of the second sign.
And it shall come to pass if they will not believe thee for these two signs, and will not hearken to thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river and pour it upon the dry land, and the water which thou shalt take from the river shall be blood upon the dry land.
And Moses said to the Lord, I pray, Lord, I have not been sufficient in former times, neither from the time that thou hast begun to speak to thy servant: I am weak in speech, and slow-tongued.
And the Lord said to Moses, Who has given a mouth to man, and who has made the very hard of hearing, and the deaf, the seeing and the blind? have not I, God? And now go and I will open thy mouth, and will instruct thee in what thou shalt say.
And Moses said, I pray thee, Lord, appoint another able person whom thou shalt send.
And the Lord was greatly angered against Moses, and said, Lo! is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he will surely speak to thee; and, behold, he will come forth to meet thee, and beholding thee he will rejoice within himself. And thou shalt speak to him; and thou shalt put my words into his mouth, and I will open thy mouth and his mouth, and I will instruct you in what ye shall do. And he shall speak for thee to the people, and he shall be thy mouth, and thou shalt be for him in things pertaining to God. And this rod that was turned into a serpent thou shalt take in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt work miracles.
(Exodus 4:1-17 Brenton)
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According to the promises made by YHVH to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, they were told there would be kings, who would come from their loins, they would be given their own land, and all the nations of the earth would be blest in their seed.
When the children of Israel were in Egypt, and YHVH saw the affliction of his people, He chose to send Moses to Pharaoh to tell him to let His people go, and Moses was to bring them out. We read in Exodus 4, YHVH referred to His people as his firstborn:
And the Lord said to Moses, When thou goest and returnest to Egypt, see--all the miracles I have charged thee with, thou shalt work before Pharao: and I will harden his heart, and he shall certainly not send away the people.
And thou shalt say to Pharao, These things saith the Lord, Israel is my first-born. And I said to thee, Send away my people, that they may serve me: now if thou wilt not send them away, see, I will slay thy fir-born son.
(Exodus 4:21-23 Brenton)
After Moses brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, we see another promise made by YHVH concerning these people:
And in the third month of the departure of the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, on the same day, they came into the wilderness of Sina. And they departed from Raphidin, and came into the wilderness of Sina, and there Israel encamped before the mountain.
And Moses went up to the mount of God, and God called him out of the mountain, saying, These things shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and thou shalt report them to the children of Israel. Ye have seen all that I have done to the Egyptians, and I took you up as upon eagles' wings, and I brought you near to myself. And now if ye will indeed hear my voice, and keep my covenant, ye shall be to me a peculiar people above all nations; for the whole earth is mine. And ye shall be to me a royal priesthood and a holy nation: these words shalt thou speak to the children of Israel.
And Moses came and called the elders of the people, and he set before them all these words, which God appointed them. And all the people answered with one accord, and said, All things that God has spoken, we will do and hearken to: and Moses reported these words to God.
(Exodus 19:1-8 Brenton)
In the following chapter, we see YHVH spoke to the people on Mt Sinai, and after the ten commandments were spoken, the people were in fear, asking Moses to speak to them as opposed to God, lest they die.
And all the people perceived the thundering, and the flashes, and the voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and all the people feared and stood afar off, and said to Moses, Speak thou to us, and let not God speak to us, lest we die.
And Moses says to them, Be of good courage, for God is come to you to try you, that his fear may be among you, that ye sin not. And the people stood afar off, and Moses went into the darkness where God was.
(Exodus 20:18-21 Brenton)
According to Moses' words in Deuteronomy, we see that YHVH had also said at this time the following:
And the Lord heard the voice of your words as ye spoke to me; and the Lord said to me, I have heard the voice of the words of this people, even all things that they have said to thee. They have well said all that they have spoken. O that there were such a heart in them, that they should fear me and keep my commands always, that it might be well with them and with their sons for ever.
(Deuteronomy 5:28-29 Brenton)
Then according to The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah, the words we see in Deuteronomy 18, were actually spoken at this point as well:
I will raise up to them a prophet of their brethren, like thee; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them as I shall command him. And whatever man shall not hearken to whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in my name, I will take vengeance on him. But the prophet whosoever shall impiously speak in my name a word which I have not commanded him to speak, and whosoever shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.
But if thou shalt say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the Lord has not spoken? Whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in the name of the Lord, and they shall not come true, and not come to pass, this is the thing which the Lord has not spoken; that prophet has spoken wickedly: ye shall not spare him.
(Deuteronomy 18:18-22 Brenton)
Then YHVH proceeds to give Moses instruction concerning making gods of silver and gold and the building of altars:>
And the Lord said to Moses, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and thou shalt report it to the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven. Ye shall not make to yourselves gods of silver, and gods of gold ye shall not make to yourselves.
Ye shall make to me an altar of earth; and upon it ye shall sacrifice your whole burnt-offerings, and your peace-offerings, and your sheep and your calves in every place, where I shall record my name; and I will come to thee and bless thee. And if thou wilt make to me an altar of stones, thou shalt not build them hewn stones; for thou hast lifted up thy tool upon them, and they are defiled. Thou shalt not go up to my altar by steps, that thou mayest not uncover thy nakedness upon it.
(Exodus 20:22-26 Brenton)
And the following three chapters outline the remaining ordinances God gave Moses that day to instruct the people, and the promise that Israel would be a royal priesthood and a holy nation is reiterated:
If ye will indeed hear my voice, and if thou wilt do all the things I shall charge thee with, and keep my covenant, ye shall be to me a peculiar people above all nations, for the whole earth is mine; and ye shall be to me a royal priesthood, and a holy nation: these words shall ye speak to the children of Israel, If ye shall indeed hear my voice, and do all the things I shall tell thee, I will be an enemy to thine enemies, and an adversary to thine adversaries.
(Exodus 23:22 Brenton)
Notice this promise is conditional. It hinges on their obedience and the keeping of the covenant YHVH was making with them on that day.
The Sin of the Golden Calf
After accepting the covenant with YHVH that day, the people did not do all the things He charged them. They broke the covenant when Moses had gone up to the mountain to get the stone tablets. Aaron was left in charge, and he was instrumental in their sin.
And the Lord said to Moses, Come up to me into the mountain, and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, the law and the commandments, which I have written to give them laws. And Moses rose up and Joshua his attendant, and they went up into the mount of God. And to the elders they said, Rest there till we return to you; and behold, Aaron and Or are with you: if any man have a cause to be tried, let them go to them.
And Moses and Joshua went up to the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. And the glory of God came down upon the mount Sina, and the cloud covered it six days; and the Lord called Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud. And the appearance of the glory of the Lord was as burning fire on the top of the mountain, before the children of Israel. And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and went up to the mountain, and was there in the mountain forty days and forty nights.
(Exodus 24:12-18 Brenton)
And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain, the people combined against Aaron, and said to him, Arise and make us gods who shall go before us; for this Moses, the man who brought us forth out of the land of Egypt—we do not know what is become of him.
And Aaron says to them, Take off the golden ear-rings which are in the ears of your wives and daughters, and bring them to me. And all the people took off the golden ear-rings that were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron. And he received them at their hands, and formed them with a graving tool; and he made them a molten calf, and said, These are thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
And Aaron having seen it built an altar before it, and Aaron made proclamation saying, To-morrow is a feast of the Lord. And having risen early on the morrow, he offered whole burnt-offerings, and offered a peace-offering; and the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Go quickly, descend hence, for thy people whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt have transgressed; they have quickly gone out of the way which thou commandedst; they have made for themselves a calf, and worshipped it, and sacrificed to it, and said, These are thy gods, O Israel, who brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And now let me alone, and I will be very angry with them and consume them, and I will make thee a great nation.
And Moses prayed before the Lord God, and said, Wherefore, O Lord, art thou very angry with thy people, whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt with great strength, and with thy high arm? Take heed lest at any time the Egyptians speak, saying, With evil intent he brought them out to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from off the earth; cease from thy wrathful anger, and be merciful to the sin of thy people, remembering Abraam and Isaac and Jacob thy servants, to whom thou hast sworn by thyself, and hast spoken to them, saying, I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of heaven for multitude, and all this land which thou spokest of to give to them, so that they shall possess it for ever.
And the Lord was prevailed upon to preserve his people. And Moses turned and went down from the mountain, and the two tables of testimony were in his hands, tables of stone written on both their sides: they were written within and without. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing the writing of God written on the tables.
We see Moses mediated at this point on behalf of the people, calling for God's mercy and drawing His attention to the promises He made to his fathers. Then, YHVH prevailed upon to preserve his people.
And Joshua having heard the voice of the people crying, says to Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp. And Moses says, It is not the voice of them that begin the battle, nor the voice of them that begin the cry of defeat, but the voice of them that begin the banquet of wine do I hear. And when he drew nigh to the camp, he sees the calf and the dances; and Moses being very angry cast the two tables out of his hands, and broke them to pieces under the mountain. And having taken the calf which they made, he consumed it with fire, and ground it very small, and scattered it on the water, and made the children of Israel to drink it.
And Moses said to Aaron, What has this people done to thee, that thou hast brought upon them a great sin? And Aaron said to Moses, Be not angry, my lord, for thou knowest the impetuosity of this people. For they say to me, Make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this man Moses, who brought us out of Egypt, we do not know what is become of him. And I said to them, If any one has golden ornaments, take them off; and they gave them me, and I cast them into the fire, and there came out this calf.
And when Moses saw that the people was scattered, --for Aaron had scattered them so as to be a rejoicing to their enemies, -- then stood Moses at the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the Lord's side? let him come to me. Then all the sons of Levi came to him. And he says to them, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Put every one his sword on his thigh, and go through and return from gate to gate through the camp, and slay every one his brother, and every one his neighbour, and every one him that is nearest to him. And the sons of Levi did as Moses spoke to them, and there fell of the people in that day to the number of three thousand men.
And Moses said to them, Ye have filled your hands this day to the Lord each one on his son or on his brother, so that blessing should be given to you. And it came to pass after the morrow had begun, that Moses said to the people, Ye have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up to God, that I may make atonement for your sin.
And Moses returned to the Lord and said, I pray, O Lord, this people has sinned a great sin, and they have made for themselves golden gods. And now if thou wilt forgive their sin, forgive it; and if not, blot me out of thy book, which thou hast written.
And the Lord said to Moses, If any one has sinned against me, I will blot them out of my book. And now go, descend, and lead this people into the place of which I spoke to thee: behold, my angel shall go before thy face; and in the day when I shall visit I will bring upon them their sin. And the Lord smote the people for the making the calf, which Aaron made.
(Exodus 32:1-35 Brenton)
As a result of their sin, Moses executed judgment. He had the men who claimed to be on the Lord's side come to him, and he instructed them to put on their swords and go through and return from gate to gate through the camp and slay every one his brother, every one his neighbour, and every one him that is nearest to him. And the sons of Levi did as Moses instructed.
Then Moses sought YHVH to make atonement for the sin of Israel asking forgiveness for the people. He then demonstrated his willingness to lay down his life for them, stating if YHVH would not forgive them this sin, that YHVH would blot him out of the book, which He has written. But YHVH decreed, If any one has sinned against me, I will blot them out of my book.
It was after this that the people were charged to build a tabernacle unto YHVH, to equip it with particular furnishings, to design priestly garments, and then to consecrate Aaron and his sons to stand as priests in ministry to YHVH.
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And do thou take to thyself both Aaron thy brother, and his sons, even them of the children of Israel; so that Aaron, and Nadab and Abiud, and Eleazar and Ithamar, sons of Aaron, may minister to me.
And thou shalt make holy apparel for Aaron thy brother, for honour and glory. And speak thou to all those who are wise in understanding, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom and perception; and they shall make the holy apparel of Aaron for the sanctuary, in which apparel he shall minister to me as priest.
And these are the garments which they shall make: the breast-plate, and the shoulder-piece, and the full-length robe, and the tunic with a fringe, and the tire, and the girdle; and they shall make holy garments for Aaron and his sons to minister to me as priests.
And they shall take the gold, and the blue, and the purple, and the scarlet, and the fine linen. And they shall make the shoulder-piece of fine linen spun, the woven work of the embroiderer. It shall have two shoulder-pieces joined together, fastened on the two sides. And the woven work of the shoulder-pieces which is upon it, shall be of one piece according to the work, of pure gold and blue and purple, and spun scarlet and fine twined linen.
And thou shalt take the two stones, the stones of emerald, and thou shalt grave on them the names of the children of Israel. Six names on the first stone, and the other six names on the second stone, according to their births. It shall be the work of the stone-engraver's art; as the graving of a seal thou shalt engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel. And thou shalt put the two stones on the shoulders of the shoulder-piece: they are memorial-stones for the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel before the Lord on his two shoulders, a memorial for them.
And thou shalt make circlets of pure gold; and thou shalt make two fringes of pure gold, variegated with flowers wreathen work; and thou shalt put the wreathen fringes on the circlets, fastening them on their shoulder-pieces in front.
And thou shalt make the oracle of judgment, the work of the embroiderer: in keeping with the ephod, thou shalt make it of gold, and blue and purple, and spun scarlet, and fine linen spun. Thou shalt make it square: it shall be double; of a span the length of it, and of a span the breadth. And thou shalt interweave with it a texture of four rows of stone; there shall be a row of stones, a sardius, a topaz, and emerald, the first row. And the second row, a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a jasper. And the third row, a ligure, an agate, an amethyst: and the fourth row, a chrysolite, and a beryl, and an onyx stone, set round with gold, bound together with gold: let them be according to their row. And let the stones of the names of the children of Israel be twelve according to their names, engravings as of seals: let them be for the twelve tribes each according to the name. And thou shalt make on the oracle woven fringes, a chain-work of pure gold. And Aaron shall take the names of the children of Israel, on the oracle of judgment on his breast; a memorial before God for him as he goes into the sanctuary.
And thou shalt put the fringes on the oracle of judgment; thou shalt put the wreaths on both sides of the oracle, and thou shalt put the two circlets on both the shoulders of the ephod in front. And thou shalt put the Manifestation and the Truth on the oracle of judgment; and it shall be on the breast of Aaron, when he goes into the holy place before the Lord; and Aaron shall bear the judgments of the children of Israel on his breast before the Lord continually.
And thou shalt make the full-length tunic all of blue. And the opening of it shall be in the middle having a fringe round about the opening, the work of the weaver, woven together in the joining of the same piece that it might not be rent. And under the fringe of the robe below thou shalt make as it were pomegranates of a flowering pomegranate tree, of blue, and purple, and spun scarlet, and fine linen spun, under the fringe of the robe round about: golden pomegranates of the same shape, and bells round about between these. A bell by the side of a golden pomegranate, and flower-work on the fringe of the robe round about. And the sound of Aaron shall be audible when he ministers, as he goes into the sanctuary before the Lord, and has he goes out, that he die not.
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and thou shalt grave on it as the graving of a signet, Holiness of the Lord. And thou shalt put it on the spun blue cloth, and it shall be on the mitre: it shall be in the front of the mitre. And it shall be on the forehead of Aaron; and Aaron shall bear away the sins of their holy things, all that the children of Israel shall sanctify of every gift of their holy things, and it shall be on the forehead of Aaron continually acceptable for them before the Lord.
And the fringes of the garments shall be of fine linen; and thou shalt make a tire of fine linen, and thou shalt make a girdle, the work of the embroiderer.
And for the sons of Aaron thou shalt make tunics and girdles, and thou shalt make for them tires for honour and glory. And thou shalt put them on Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, and thou shalt anoint them and fill their hands: and thou shalt sanctify them, that they may minister to me in the priest's office.
And thou shalt make for them linen drawers to cover the nakedness of their flesh; they shall reach from the loins to the thighs. And Aaron shall have them, and his sons, whenever they enter into the tabernacle of witness, or when they shall advance to the altar of the sanctuary to minister, so they shall not bring sin upon themselves, lest they die: it is a perpetual statute for him, and for his seed after him.
(Exodus 28:1-39 Brenton)
Instructions for the Consecration of the Priests
And these are the things which thou shalt do to them: thou shalt sanctify them, so that they shall serve me in the priesthood; and thou shalt take one young calf from the herd, and two unblemished rams; and unleavened loaves kneaded with oil, and unleavened cakes anointed with oil: thou shalt make them of fine flour of wheat. And thou shalt put them on one basket, and thou shalt offer them on the basket, and the young calf and the two rams.
And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons to the doors of the tabernacle of testimony, and thou shalt wash them with water. And having taken the garments, thou shalt put on Aaron thy brother both the full-length robe and the ephod and the oracle; and thou shalt join for him the oracle to the ephod. And thou shalt put the mitre on his head; and thou shalt put the plate, even the Holiness, on the mitre.
And thou shalt take of the anointing oil, and thou shalt pour it on his head, and shalt anoint him, and thou shalt bring his sons, and put garments on them. And thou shalt gird them with the girdles, and put the tires upon them, and they shall have a priestly office to me for ever; and thou shalt fill the hands of Aaron and the hands of his sons.
And thou shalt bring the calf to the door of the tabernacle of witness; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the calf, before the Lord, by the doors of the tabernacle of witness. And thou shalt slay the calf before the Lord, by the doors of the tabernacle of witness. And thou shalt take of the blood of the calf, and put it on the horns of the altar with thy finger, but all the rest of the blood thou shalt pour out at the foot of the altar. And thou shalt take all the fat that is on the belly, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and shalt put them upon the altar. But the flesh of the calf, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp; for it is an offering on account of sin.
And thou shalt take one ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram. And thou shalt kill it, and take the blood and pour it on the altar round about. And thou shalt divide the ram by his several limbs, and thou shalt wash the inward parts and the feet with water, and thou shalt put them on the divided parts with the head. And thou shalt offer the whole ram on the altar, a whole burnt-offering to the Lord for a sweet-smelling savour: it is an offering of incense to the Lord.
And thou shalt take the second ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram. And thou shalt kill it, and take of the blood of it, and put it on the tip of Aaron's right ear, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot, and on the tips of the right ears of his sons, and on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the great toes of their right feet.
And thou shalt take of the blood from the altar, and of the anointing oil; and thou shalt sprinkle it upon Aaron and on his garments, and on his sons and on his sons' garments with him; and he shall be sanctified and his apparel, and his sons and his sons' apparel with him: but the blood of the ram thou shalt pour round about upon the altar.
And thou shalt take from the ram its fat, both the fat that covers the belly, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder, for this is a consecration. And one cake made with oil, and one cake from the basket of unleavened bread set forth before the Lord. And thou shalt put them all on the hands of Aaron, and on the hands of his sons, and thou shalt separate them as a separate offering before the Lord. And thou shalt take them from their hands, and shalt offer them up on the altar of whole burnt-offering for a sweet-smelling savour before the Lord: it is an offering to the Lord.
And thou shalt take the breast from the ram of consecration which is Aaron's, and thou shalt separate it as a separate offering before the Lord, and it shall be to thee for a portion. And thou shalt sanctify the separated breast and the shoulder of removal which has been separated, and which has been removed from the ram of consecration, of the portion of Aaron and of that of his sons. And it shall be a perpetual statute of the children of Israel to Aaron and his sons, for this is a separate offering; and it shall be a special offering from the children of Israel, from the peace-offerings of the children of Israel, a special offering to the Lord.
And the apparel of the sanctuary which is Aaron's shall be his son's after him, for them to be anointed in them, and to fill their hands. The priest his successor from among his sons who shall go into the tabernacle of witness to minister in the holies, shall put them on seven days.
And thou shalt take the ram of consecration, and thou shalt boil the flesh in the holy place. And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the loaves in the basket, by the doors of the tabernacle of witness. They shall eat the offerings with which they were sanctified to fill their hands, to sanctify them; and a stranger shall not eat of them, for they are holy. And if aught be left of the flesh of the sacrifice of consecration and of the loaves until the morning, thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: it shall not be eaten, for it is a holy thing. And thus shalt thou do for Aaron and for his sons according to all things that I have commanded thee; seven days shalt thou fill their hands.
And thou shalt sacrifice the calf of the sin-offering on the day of purification, and thou shalt purify the altar when thou dost perform consecration upon it, and thou shalt anoint it so as to sanctify it. Seven days shalt thou purify the altar and sanctify it; and the altar shall be most holy, every one that touches the altar shall be hallowed.
And these are the offerings which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two unblemished lambs of a year old daily on the altar continually, a constant offering. One lamb thou shalt offer in the morning, and the second lamb thou shalt offer in the evening. And a tenth measure of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil, and a drink-offering the fourth part of a hin of wine for one lamb. And thou shalt offer the second lamb in the evening, after the manner of the morning-offering, and according to the drink-offering of the morning lamb; thou shalt offer it an offering to the Lord for a sweet-smelling savour, a perpetual sacrifice throughout your generations, at the door of the tabernacle of witness before the Lord; wherein I will be known to thee from thence, so as to speak to thee. And I will there give orders to the children of Israel, and I will be sanctified in my glory.
And I will sanctify the tabernacle of testimony and the altar, and I will sanctify Aaron and his sons, to minister as priests to me. And I will be called upon among the children of Israel, and will be their God. And they shall know that I am the Lord their God, who brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, to be called upon by them, and to be their God.
(Exodus 29:1-46 Brenton)
The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Take Aaron and his sons, and his robes and the anointing oil, and the calf for the sin-offering, and the two rams, and the basket of unleavened bread, and assemble the whole congregation at the door of the tabernacle of witness. And Moses did as the Lord appointed him, and he assembled the congregation at the door of the tabernacle of witness.
And Moses said to the congregation, This is the thing which the Lord has commanded you to do. And Moses brought nigh Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water, and put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the tunic, and put on him the ephod; and girded him with a girdle according to the make of the ephod, and clasped him closely with it: and put upon it the oracle, and put upon the oracle the Manifestation and the Truth. And he put the mitre on his head, and put upon the mitre in front the golden plate, the most holy thing, as the Lord commanded Moses.
And Moses took of the anointing oil, and sprinkled of it seven times on the altar; and anointed the altar, and hallowed it, and all things on it, and the laver, and its foot, and sanctified them; and anointed the tabernacle and all its furniture, and hallowed it.
And Moses poured of the anointing oil on the head of Aaron; and he anointed him and sanctified him.
And Moses brought the sons of Aaron near, and put on them coast and girded them with girdles, and put on them bonnets, as the Lord commanded Moses. And Moses brought near the calf for the sin-offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the calf of the sin-offering. And he slew it; and Moses took of the blood, and put it on the horns of the altar round about with his finger; and he purified the altar, and poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar, and sanctified it, to make atonement upon it.
And Moses took all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the lobe on the liver, and both the kidneys, and the fat that was upon them, and Moses offered them on the altar. But the calf, and his hide, and his flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire without the camp, as the Lord commanded Moses.
And Moses brought near the ram for a whole-burnt-offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram. And Moses slew the ram: and Moses poured the blood on the altar round about. And he divided the ram by its limbs, and Moses offered the head, and the limbs, and the fat; and he washed the belly and the feet with water. And Moses offered up the whole ram on the altar: it is a whole-burnt-offering for a sweet-smelling savour; it is a burnt-offering to the Lord, as the Lord commanded Moses.
And Moses brought the second ram, the ram of consecration, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram, and he slew him; and Moses took of his blood, and put it upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot. And Moses brought near the sons of Aaron; and Moses put of the blood on the tips of their right ears, and on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the great toes of their right feet, and Moses poured out the blood on the altar round about. And he took the fat, and the rump, and the fat on the belly, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder. And from the basket of consecration, which was before the Lord, he also took one unleavened loaf, and one loaf made with oil, and one cake; and put them upon the fat, and the right shoulder: and put them all on the hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his sons, and offered them up for a wave-offering before the Lord.
And Moses took them at their hands, and Moses offered them on the altar, on the whole-burnt-offering of consecration, which is a smell of sweet savour: it is a burnt-offering to the Lord. And Moses took the breast, and separated it for a heave-offering before the Lord, from the ram of consecration; and it became Moses' portion, as the Lord commanded Moses.
And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood that was on the altar, and sprinkled it on Aaron, and on his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him. And he sanctified Aaron and his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him.
And Moses said to Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh in the tent of the tabernacle of witness in the holy place; and there ye shall eat it and the loaves in the basket of consecration, as it has been appointed me, the Lord saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat them. And that which is left of the flesh and of the loaves burn ye with fire. And ye shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of witness for seven days, until the day be fulfilled, the day of your consecration; for in seven days shall he consecrate you, as he did in this day on which the Lord commanded me to do so, to make an atonement for you. And ye shall remain seven days at the door of the tabernacle of witness, day and night; ye shall observe the ordinances of the Lord, that ye die not; for so has the Lord God commanded me. And Aaron and his sons performed all these commands which the Lord commanded Moses.
(Leviticus 8:1-36 Brenton)
There was a man of Armathaim Sipha, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Helkana, a son of Jeremeel the son of Elias the son of Thoke, in Nasib Ephraim. And he had two wives; the name of the one was Anna, and the name of the second Phennana. And Phennana had children, but Anna had no child.
And the man went up from year to year from his city, from Armathaim, to worship and sacrifice to the Lord God of Sabaoth at Selom: and there were Heli and his two sons Ophni and Phinees, the priests of the Lord.
And the day came, and Helkana sacrificed, and gave portions to his wife Phennana and her children. And to Anna he gave a prime portion, because she had no child, only Helkana loved Anna more than the other; but the Lord had closed her womb. For the Lord gave her no child in her affliction, and according to the despondency of her affliction; and she was dispirited on this account, that the Lord shut up her womb so as not to give her a child.
So she did year by year, in going up to the house of the Lord; and she was dispirited, and wept, and did not eat. And Helkana her husband said to her, Anna: and she said to him, Here am I, my lord: and he said to her, What ails thee that thou weepest? and why dost thou not eat? and why does thy heart smite thee? am I not better to thee than ten children?
And Anna rose up after they had eaten in Selom, and stood before the Lord: and Heli the priest was on a seat by the threshold of the temple of the Lord. And she was very much grieved in spirit, and prayed to the Lord, and wept abundantly. And she vowed a vow to the Lord, saying, O Lord God of Sabaoth, if thou welt indeed look upon the humiliation of thine handmaid, and remember me, and give to thine handmaid a man-child, then will I indeed dedicate him to thee till the day of his death; and he shall drink no wine nor strong drink, and no razor shall come upon his head.
And it came to pass, while she was long praying before the Lord, that Heli the priest marked her mouth. And she was speaking in her heart, and her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: and Heli accounted her a drunken woman. And the servant of Heli said to her, How long wilt thou be drunken? take away thy wine from thee, and go out from the presence of the Lord.
And Anna answered and said, Nay, my lord, I live in a hard day, and I have not drunk wine or strong drink, and I pour out my soul before the Lord. Count not thy handmaid for a pestilent woman, for by reason of the abundance of my importunity I have continued my prayer until now.
And Heli answered and said to her, Go in peace: the God of Israel give thee all thy petition, which thou hast asked of him. And she said, Thine handmaid has found favour in thine eyes: and the woman went her way, and entered into her lodging, and ate and drank with her husband, and her countenance was no more sad. And they rise early in the morning, and worship the Lord, and they go their way: and Helkana went into his house at Armathaim, and knew his wife Anna; and the Lord remembered her, and she conceived.
And it came to pass when the time was come, that she brought forth a son, and called his name Samuel, and said, Because I asked him of the Lord God of Sabaoth.
(1 Samuel 1:1-20 Brenton)
Eli's Evil Sons
And the sons of Heli the priest were evil sons, not knowing the Lord. And the priest's claim from every one of the people that sacrificed was this: the servant of the priest came when the flesh was in seething, and a flesh-hook of three teeth was in his hand. And he struck it into the great caldron, or into the brazen vessel, or into the pot, and whatever came up with the flesh-hook, the priest took for himself: so they did to all Israel that came to sacrifice to the Lord in Selom. And before the fat was burnt for a sweet savour, the servant of the priest would come, and say to the man that sacrificed, Give flesh to roast for the priest, and I will by no means take of thee sodden flesh out of the caldron.
And if the man that sacrificed said, First let the fat be burned, as it is fit, and take for thyself of all things which thy soul desires: then he would say, Nay, for thou shalt give it me now; and if not I will take it by force.
So the sin of the young men was very great before the Lord, for they set at nought the offering of the Lord. (1 Samuel 2:12-17 Brenton)
Eli Rebukes His Sons
And Heli was very old, and he heard what his sons did to the children of Israel. And he said to them, Why do ye according to this thing, which I hear from the mouth of all the people of the Lord? Nay my sons, for the report which I hear is not good; do not so, for the reports which I hear are not good, so that the people do not serve God. If a man should at all sin against another, then shall they pray for him to the Lord; but if a man sin against the Lord, who shall intreat for him?
But they hearkened not to the voice of their father, because the Lord would by all means destroy them. (1 Samuel 2:22-25 Brenton)
YHVH Rejects Eli's Household
And a man of God came to Heli, and said, Thus says the Lord, I plainly revealed myself to the house of thy father, when they were servants in Egypt to the house of Pharao. And I chose the house of thy father out of all the tribes of Israel to minister to me in the priest's office, to go up to my altar, and to burn incense, and to wear an ephod. And I gave to the house of thy father all the offerings by fire of the children of Israel for food. And wherefore hast thou looked upon my incense-offering and my meat-offering with a shameless eye, and hast honoured thy sons above me, so that they should bless themselves with the first-fruits of every sacrifice of Israel before me?
Therefore thus says the Lord God of Israel, I said, Thy house and the house of thy father shall pass before me for ever: but now the Lord says, That be far from me; for I will only honour them that honour me, and he that sets me at nought shall be despised.
Behold, the days come when I will destroy thy seed and the seed of thy father's house. And thou shalt not have an old man in my house for ever. And if I do not destroy a man of thine from my altar, it shall be that his eyes may fail and his soul may perish; and every one that remains in thy house shall fall by the sword of men.
And this which shall come upon thy two sons Ophni and Phinees shall be a sign to thee; in one day they shall both die. And I will raise up to myself a faithful priest, who shall do all that is in my heart and in my soul; and I will build him a sure house, and he shall walk before my Christ for ever.
And it shall come to pass that he that survives in thy house, shall come to do obeisance before him for a little piece of silver, saying, Put me into one of thy priest's offices to eat bread.
(1 Samuel 2:27-36 Brenton)
Samuel Given to YHVH
And the man Helkana and all his house went up to offer in Selom the yearly sacrifice, and his vows, and all the tithes of his land. But Anna did not go up with him, for she said to her husband, I will not go up until the child goes up, when I have weaned him, and he shall be presented before the Lord, and he shall abide there continually. And Helkana her husband said to her, Do that which is good in thine eyes, abide still until thou shalt have weaned him; but may the Lord establish that which comes out of thy mouth: and the woman tarried, and suckled her son until she had weaned him.
And she went up with him to Selom with a calf of three years old, and loaves, and an ephah of fine flour, and a bottle of wine: and she entered into the house of the Lord in Selom, and the child with them. And they brought him before the Lord; and his father slew his offering which he offered from year to year to the Lord; and he brought near the child, and slew the calf; and Anna the mother of the child brought him to Heli. And she said, I pray thee, my lord, as thy soul liveth, I am the woman that stood in thy presence with thee while praying to the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord has given me my request that I asked of him. And I lend him to the Lord all his days that he lives, a loan to the Lord: and she said,
My heart is established in the Lord, my horn is exalted in my God; my mouth is enlarged over my enemies, I have rejoiced in thy salvation.
And she left him there before the Lord, and departed to Armathaim: and the child ministered in the presence of the Lord before Heli the priest.
(1 Samuel 1:21-2:11 Brenton)
For there is none holy as the Lord, and there is none righteous as our God; there is none holy besides thee. Boast not, and utter not high things; let not high-sounding words come out of your mouth, for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and God prepares his own designs. The bow of the mighty has waxed feeble, and the weak have girded themselves with strength. They that were full of bread are brought low; and the hungry have forsaken the land; for the barren has born seven, and she that abounded in children has waxed feeble. The Lord kills and makes alive; he brings down to the grave, and brings up. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich; he brings low, and lifts up. He lifts up the poor from the earth, and raises the needy from the dunghill; to seat him with the princes of the people, and causing them to inherit the throne of glory: granting his petition to him that prays; and he blesses the years of the righteous, for by strength cannot man prevail. The Lord will weaken his adversary; the Lord is holy.
Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, nor let the mighty man boast in his strength, and let not the rich man boast in his wealth; but let him that boasts boast in this, to understand and know the Lord, and to execute judgment and justice in the midst of the earth.
The Lord has gone up to the heavens, and has thundered: he will judge the extremities of the earth, and he gives strength to our kings, and will exalt the horn of his Christ.
And Samuel ministered before the Lord, a child girt with a linen ephod. And his mother made him a little doublet, and brought it to him from year to year, in her going up in company with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice.
And Heli blessed Helcana and his wife, saying The Lord recompense to thee seed of this woman, in return for the loan which thou hast lent to the Lord: and the man returned to his place. And the Lord visited Anna, and she bore yet three sons, and two daughters.
And the child Samuel grew before the Lord.
(1 Samuel 2:18-21 Brenton)
And the child Samuel advanced, and was in favour with God and with men.
(1 Samuel 2:26 Brenton)
YHVH Calls Samuel
And the child Samuel ministered to the Lord before Heli the priest: and the word of the Lord was precious in those days, there was no distinct vision.
And it came to pass at that time that Heli was sleeping in his place; and his eyes began to fail, and could not see. And the lamp of God was burning before it was trimmed, and Samuel slept in the temple, where was the ark of God. And the Lord called, Samuel, Samuel; and he said, Behold, here am I.
And he ran to Heli, and said, Here am I, for thou didst call me: and he said, I did not call thee; return, go to sleep; and he returned and went to sleep.
And the Lord called again, Samuel, Samuel: and he went to Heli the second time, and said, Behold here am I, for thou didst call me: and he said, I called thee not; return, go to sleep. And it was before Samuel knew the Lord, and before the word of the Lord was revealed to him.
And the Lord called Samuel again for the third time: and he arose and went to Heli, and said, Behold, I am here, for thou didst call me: and Heli perceived that the Lord had called the child. And he said, Return, child, go to sleep; and it shall come to pass if he shall call thee, that thou shalt say, Speak for thy servant hears: and Samuel went and lay down in his place.
And the Lord came, and stood, and called him as before: and Samuel said, Speak, for thy servant hears. And the Lord said to Samuel, Behold, I execute my words in Israel; whoever hears them, both his ears shall tingle. In that day I will raise up against Heli all things that I have said against his house; I will begin, and I will make an end. And I have told him that I will be avenged on his house perpetually for the iniquities of his sons, because his sons spoke evil against God, and he did not admonish them. And it shall not go on so; I have sworn to the house of Eli, the iniquity of the house of Eli shall not be atoned for with incense or sacrifices for ever.
And Samuel slept till morning, and rose early in the morning, and opened the doors of the house of the Lord; and Samuel feared to tell Heli the vision. And Heli said to Samuel, Samuel, my son; and he said, Behold, here am I. And he said, What was the word that was spoken to thee? I pray thee hide it not from me: may God do these things to thee, and more also, if thou hide from me any thing of all the words that were spoken to thee in thine ears.
And Samuel reported all the words, and hid them not from him. And Heli said, He is the Lord, he shall do that which is good in his sight. And Samuel grew, and the Lord was with him, and there did not fall one of his words to the ground.
And all Israel knew from Dan even to Bersabee, that Samuel was faithful as a prophet to the Lord. And the Lord manifested himself again in Selom, for the Lord revealed himself to Samuel; and Samuel was accredited to all Israel as a prophet to the Lord from one end of the land to the other: and Heli was very old, and his sons kept advancing in wickedness, and their way was evil before the Lord.
(1 Samuel 3:1-21 Brenton)
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The most well-known king from the Old Testament I believe is David, however one of the first mentions of the word translated as king ["melek" (H4428) in Hebrew] is with Melchizedek, as previously stated pertaining to being priest of God Most High. His name means king of righteousness.
The next mention of "king" outside of Genesis 14, is found in Genesis 17, relating to the seed of Abraham.
And Abram was ninety-nine years old, and the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, I am thy God, be well-pleasing before me, and be blameless. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly.
And Abram fell upon his face, and God spoke to him, saying, And I, behold! my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of a multitude of nations. And thy name shall no more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraam, for I have made thee a father of many nations. And I will increase thee very exceedingly, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.
(Genesis 17:1-6 Brenton)
But it wasn't until after the days of the Judges, when the children of Israel had been in the Promised Land for a while, that the people demanded a king be set over them.
Israel Demands a King
And it came to pass when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges over Israel. And these are the names of his sons; Joel the first-born, and the name of the second Abia, judges in Bersabee. And his sons did not walk in his way; and they turned aside after gain, and took gifts, and perverted judgments.
And the men of Israel gather themselves together, and come to Armathaim to Samuel, and they said to him, Behold, thou art grown old, and thy sons walk not in thy way; and now set over us a king to judge us, as also the other nations have. And the thing was evil in the eyes of Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us: and Samuel prayed to the Lord.
And the Lord said to Samuel, Hear the voice of the people, in whatever they shall say to thee; for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me from reigning over them. According to all their doings which they have done to me, from the day that I brought them out of Egypt until this day, even as they have deserted me, and served other gods, so they do also to thee. And now hearken to their voice; only thou shalt solemnly testify to them, and thou shalt describe to them the manner of the king who shall reign over them.
(1 Samuel 8:1-9 Brenton)
But the people would not hearken to Samuel; and they said to him, Nay, but there shall be a king over us. An[d] we also will be like all the nations; and our king shall judge us, and shall go out before us, and fight our battles.
And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and spoke them in the ears of the Lord. And the Lord said to Samuel, Hearken to their voice, and appoint them a king. And Samuel said to the men of Israel, Let each man depart to his city.
(1 Samuel 8:19-22 Brenton)
YHVH Anoints Saul as King
And there was a man of the sons of Benjamin, and his name was Kis, the son of Abiel, the son of Jared, the son of Bachir, the son of Aphec, the son of a Benjamite, a man of might. And this man had a son, and his name was Saul, of great stature, a goodly man; and there was not among the sons of Israel a goodlier than he, high above all the people from his shoulders and upward.
And the asses of Kis the father of Saul were lost; and Kis said to Saul his son, Take with thee one of the young men, and arise ye, and go seek the asses. And they went through mount Ephraim, and they went through the land of Selcha, and found them not: and they passed through the land of Segalim, and they were not there: and they passed through the land of Jamin, and found them not.
And when they came to Siph, then Saul said to his young man that was with him, Come and let us return, lest my father leave the asses, and take care for us. And the young man said to him, Behold now, there is a man of God in this city, and the man is of high repute; all that he shall speak will surely come to pass: now then let us go, that he may tell us our way on which we have set out.
And Saul said to his young man that was with him, Lo, then, we will go; but what shall we bring the man of God? for the loaves are spent out of our vessels, and we have nothing more with us that belongs to us to bring to the man of God. And the young man answered Saul again, and said, Behold, there is found in my hand a fourth part of a shekel of silver; and thou shalt give it to the man of God, and he shall tell us our way.
Now before time in Israel every one in going to enquire of God said, Come and let us go to the seer; for the people beforetime called the prophet, the seer. And Saul said to his servant, Well said, come and let us go: and they went to the city where the man of God was.
As they went up the ascent to the city, they find damsels come out to draw water, and they say to them, Is the seer here? And the virgins answered them, and they say to them, He is: behold, he is before you: now he is coming to the city, because of the day, for to-day there is a sacrifice for the people in Bama. As soon as ye shall enter into the city, so shall ye find him in the city, before he goes up to Bama to eat; for the people will not eat until he comes in, for he blesses the sacrifice, and afterwards the guests eat; now then go up, for ye shall find him because of the holiday.
And they go up to the city; and as they were entering into the midst of the city, behold, Samuel came out to meet them, to go up to Bama. And the Lord uncovered the ear of Samuel one day before Saul came to him, saying, At this time to-morrow I will send to thee a man out of the land of Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be ruler over my people Israel, and he shall save my people out of the hand of the Philistines; for I have looked upon the humiliation of my people, for their cry is come unto me.
And Samuel looked upon Saul, and the Lord answered him, Behold the man of whom I spoke to thee, this one shall rule over my people. And Saul drew near to Samuel into the midst of the city, and said, Tell me now which is the house of the seer? And Samuel answered Saul, and said, I am he: go up before me to Bama, and eat with me to-day, and I will send thee away in the morning, and I will tell thee all that is in thine heart. And concerning thine asses that have been lost now these three days, care not for them, for they are found.
And to whom does the excellency of Israel belong? does it not to thee and to thy father's house? And Saul answered and said, Am not I the son of a Benjamite, the least tribe of the people of Israel? and of the least family of the whole tribe of Benjamin? and why hast thou spoken to me according to this word?
And Samuel took Saul and his servant, and brought them to the inn, and set them there a place among the chief of those that were called, about seventy men. And Samuel said to the cook, Give me the portion which I gave thee, which I told thee to set by thee. Now the cook had boiled the shoulder, and he set it before Saul; and Samuel said to Saul, Behold that which is left: set before thee, an[d] eat; for it is set thee for a testimony in preference to the others; take of it: and Saul ate with Samuel on that day.
And he went down from Bama into the city; and they prepared a lodging for Saul on the roof, and he lay down. An[d] it came to pass when the morning dawned, that Samuel called Saul on the roof, saying, Rise up, and I will dismiss thee. And Saul arose, and he and Samuel went out. As they went down to a part of the city, Samuel said to Saul, Speak to the young man, and let him pass on before us; and do thou stand as to-day, and hearken to the word of God.
(1 Samuel 9:1-27 Brenton)
And Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it on his head, and kissed him, and said to him, Has not the Lord anointed thee for a ruler over his people, over Israel? and thou shalt rule among the people of the Lord, and thou shalt save them out of the hand of their enemies; and this shall be the sign to thee that the Lord has anointed thee for a ruler over his inheritance.
As soon as thou shalt have departed this day from me, thou shalt find two men by the burial-place of Rachel on the mount of Benjamin, exulting greatly; and they shall say to thee, The asses are found which ye went to seek; and, behold, thy father has given up the matter of the asses, and he is anxious for you, saying, What shall I do for my son? And thou shalt depart thence, and shalt go beyond that as far as the oak of Thabor, and thou shalt find there three men going up to God to Baethel, one bearing three kids, and another bearing three vessels of bread, and another bearing a bottle of wine. And they shall ask thee how thou doest, and shall give thee two presents of bread, and thou shall receive them of their hand. And afterward thou shalt go to the hill of God, where is the encampment of the Philistines; there is Nasib the Philistine: an[d] it shall come to pass when ye shall have entered into the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the Bama; and before them will be lutes, and a drum, and a pipe, and a harp, and they shall prophesy.
And the Spirit of the Lord shall come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man. And it shall come to pass when these signs shall come upon thee, --then do thou whatsoever thy hand shall find, because God is with thee. And thou shalt go down in front of Galgal, and behold, I come down to thee to offer a whole-burnt-offering and peace-offerings: seven days shalt thou wait until I shall come to thee, and I will make known to thee what thou shalt do.
And it came to pass when he turned his back to depart from Samuel, God gave him another heart; and all these signs came to pass in that day. And he comes thence to the hill, and behold a band of prophets opposite to him; and the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied in the midst of them.
And all that had known him before came, and saw, and behold, he was in the midst of the prophets: and the people said every one to his neighbour, What is this that has happened to the son of Kis? is Saul also among the prophets? And one of them answered and said, And who is his father? and therefore it became a proverb, Is Saul also among the prophets?
And he ceased prophesying, and comes to the hill. And his kinsman said to him and to his servant, Whither went ye? and they said, To seek the asses; and we saw that they were lost, and we went in to Samuel. And his kinsman said to Saul, Tell me, I pray thee, What did Samuel say to thee? And Saul said to his kinsman, he verily told me that the asses were found. But the matter of the kingdom he told him not.
And Samuel summoned all the people before the Lord to Massephath. And he said to the children of Israel, Thus has the Lord God of Israel spoken, saying, I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt, and I rescued you out of the hand of Pharao king of Egypt, and out of all the kingdoms that afflicted you. And ye have this day rejected God, who is himself your Deliverer out of all your evils and afflictions; and ye said, Nay, but thou shalt set a king over us: and now stand before the Lord according to your tribes, and according to your families.
And Samuel brought nigh all the tribes of Israel, and the tribe of Benjamin is taken by lot. And he brings near the tribe of Benjamin by families, and the family of Mattari is taken by lot: and they bring near the family of Mattari, man by man, and Saul the son of Kis is taken; and he sought him, but he was not found.
And Samuel asked yet again of the Lord, Will the man come hither? and the Lord said, Behold, he is hid among the stuff. And he ran and took him thence, and he set him in the midst of the people; and he was higher than all the people by his shoulders and upwards. And Samuel said to all the people, Have ye seen whom the Lord has chosen to himself, that there is none like to him among you all? And all the people took notice, and said, Let the king live!
And Samuel told the people the manner of the king, and wrote it in a book, and set it before the Lord: and Samuel sent away all the people, and each went to his place. And Saul departed to his house to Gabaa; and there went with Saul mighty men whose hearts God had touched. But evil men said, Who is this man that shall save us? and they despised him, and brought him no gifts.
(1 Samuel 10:1-27 Brenton)
YHVH Rejects Saul as King
And Samuel said to Saul, The Lord sent me to anoint thee king over Israel: and now hear the voice of the Lord. Thus said the Lord of hosts, Now will I take vengeance for what Amalec did to Israel, when he met him in the way as he came up out of Egypt. And now go, and thou shalt smite Amalec and Hierim and all that belongs to him, and thou shalt not save anything of him alive, but thou shalt utterly destroy him: and thou shalt devote him and all his to destruction, and thou shalt spare nothing belonging to him; and thou shalt slay both man and woman, and infant and suckling, and calf and sheep, and camel and ass.
And Saul summoned the people, and he numbered them in Galgala, four hundred thousand regular troops, and Juda thirty thousand regular troops. And Saul came to the cities of Amalec, and laid wait in the valley. And Saul said to the Kinite, Go, and depart out of the midst of the Amalekites, lest I put thee with them; for thou dealedst mercifully with the children of Israel when they went up out of Egypt. So the Kinite departed from the midst of Amalec.
And Saul smote Amalec from Evilat to Sur fronting Egypt. And he took Agag the king of Amalec alive, and he slew all the people and Hierim with the edge of the sword. And Saul and all the people saved Agag alive, and the best of the flocks, and of the herds, and of the fruits, of the vineyards, and of all the good things; and they would not destroy them: but every worthless and refuse thing they destroyed.
And the word of the Lord came to Samuel, saying, I have repented that I have made Saul to be king: for he has turned back from following me, and has not kept my word. And Samuel was grieved, and cried to the Lord all night.
And Samuel rose early and went to meet Israel in the morning, and it was told Saul, saying, Samuel has come to Carmel, and he has raised up help for himself: and he turned his chariot, and came down to Galgala to Saul; and, behold, he was offering up a whole-burnt-offering to the Lord, the chief of the spoils which he brought out of Amalec.
And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said to him, Blessed art thou of the Lord: I have performed all that the Lord said. And Samuel said, What then is the bleating of this flock in my ears, and the sound of the oxen which I hear? And Saul said, I have brought them out of Amalec, that which the people preserved, even the best of the sheep, and of the cattle, that it might be sacrificed to the Lord thy God, and the rest have I utterly destroyed.
And Samuel said to Saul, Stay, and I will tell thee what the Lord has said to me this night: and he said to him, Say on. And Samuel said to Saul, Art thou not little in his eyes, though a leader of one of the tribes of Israel? and yet the Lord anointed thee to be king over Israel. And the Lord sent thee on a journey, and said to thee, Go, and utterly destroy: thou shalt slay the sinners against me, even the Amalekites; and thou shalt war against them until thou have consumed them. And why didst not thou hearken to the voice of the Lord, but didst haste to fasten upon the spoils, and didst that which was evil in the sight of the Lord?
And Saul said to Samuel, Because I listened to the voice of the people: yet I went the way by which the Lord sent me, and I brought Agag the king of Amalec, and I destroyed Amalec. But the people took of the spoils the best flocks and herds out of that which was destroyed, to sacrifice before the Lord our God in Galgal.
And Samuel said, Does the Lord take pleasure in whole-burnt-offerings and sacrifices, as in hearing the words of the Lord? behold, obedience is better than a good sacrifice, and hearkening than the fat of rams. For sin is as divination; idols bring on pain and grief. Because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, the Lord also shall reject thee from being king over Israel.
And Saul said to Samuel, I have sinned, in that I have transgressed the word of the Lord and thy direction; for I feared the people, and I hearkened to their voice. And now remove, I pray thee, my sin, and turn back with me, and I will worship the Lord thy God.
And Samuel said to Saul, I will not turn back with thee, for thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord will reject thee from being king over Israel. And Samuel turned his face to depart, and Saul caught hold of the skirt of his garment, and tore it. And Samuel said to him, The Lord has rent thy kingdom from Israel out of thy hand this day, and will give it to thy neighbour who is better than thou. And Israel shall be divided to two: and God will not turn nor repent, for he is not as a man to repent.
And Saul said, I have sinned; yet honour me, I pray thee, before the elders of Israel, and before my people; and turn back with me, and I will worship the Lord thy God. So Samuel turned back after Saul, and he worshipped the Lord. And Samuel said, Bring me Agag the king of Amalec: and Agag came to him trembling; and Agag said Is death thus bitter? And Samuel said to Agag, As thy sword has bereaved women of their children, so shall thy mother be made childless among women: and Samuel slew Agag before the Lord in Galgal.
And Samuel departed to Armathaim, and Saul went up to his house at Gabaa. And Samuel did not see Saul again till the day of his death, for Samuel mourned after Saul, and the Lord repented that he had made Saul king over Israel.
(1 Samuel 15:1-35 Brenton)
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And the Lord said to Samuel, How long dost thou mourn for Saul, whereas I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? Fill thy horn with oil, and come, I will send thee to Jessae, to Bethleem; for I have seen among his sons a king for me. And Samuel said, How can I go? whereas Saul will hear of it, and slay me: and the Lord said, Take a heifer in thine hand and thou shall say, I am come to sacrifice to the Lord. And thou shalt call Jessae to the sacrifice, and I will make known to thee what thou shalt do; and thou shalt anoint him whom I shall mention to thee.
And Samuel did all that the Lord told him; and he came to Bethleem: and the elders of the city were amazed at meeting him, and said, Dost thou come peaceably, thou Seer? And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice to the Lord. Sanctify yourselves, and rejoice with me this day: and he sanctified Jessae and his sons, and he called them to the sacrifice.
And it came to pass when they came in, that he saw Eliab, and said, Surely the Lord's anointed is before him. But the Lord said to Samuel, Look not on his appearance, nor on his stature, for I have rejected him; for God sees not as man looks; for man looks at the outward appearance, but God looks at the heart.
And Jessae called Aminadab, and he passed before Samuel: and he said, Neither has God chosen this one. And Jessae caused Sama to pass by: and he said, Neither has God chosen this one. And Jessae caused his seven sons to pass before Samuel: and Samuel said, the Lord has not chosen these. And Samuel said to Jessae, Hast thou no more sons? And Jessae said, There is yet a little one; behold, he tends the flock. And Samuel said to Jessae, Send and fetch him for we may not sit down till he comes. And he sent and fetched him: and he was ruddy, with beauty of eyes, and very goodly to behold.
And the Lord said to Samuel, Arise, and anoint David, for he is good. And Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward: and Samuel arose, and departed to Armathaim.
And the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. And Saul's servants said to him, Behold now, and evil spirit from the Lord torments thee. Let now thy servants speak before thee, and let them seek for our lord a man skilled to play on the harp; and it shall come to pass when an evil spirit comes upon thee and he shall play on his harp, that thou shalt be well, and he shall refresh thee.
And Saul said to his servants, Look now out for me a skillful player, and bring him to me. And one of his servants answered and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jessae the Bethleemite, and he understands playing on the harp, and the man is prudent, and a warrior, and wise in speech, and the man is handsome, and the Lord is with him.
And Saul sent messengers to Jessae, saying, Send to me thy son David who is with thy flock. And Jessae took a homer of bread, and a bottle of wine, and one kid of the goats, and sent them by the hand of his son David to Saul. And David went in to Saul, and stood before him; and he loved him greatly; and he became his armour-bearer. And Saul sent to Jessae, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me, for he has found grace in my eyes. And it came to pass when the evil spirit was upon Saul, that David took his harp, and played with his hand: and Saul was refreshed, and it was well with him, and the evil spirit departed from him.
(1 Samuel 16:1-23 Brenton)
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