THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to MARK
And Jesus answering said, teaching in the temple, 'How say the scribes that the Christ is son of David? for David himself said in the Holy Spirit, The Lord said to my lord, Sit thou on My right hand, till I place thine enemies—thy footstool; therefore David himself saith of him Lord, and whence is he his son?'
And the great multitude were hearing him gladly, and he was saying to them in his teaching, 'Beware of the scribes, who will in long robes to walk, and love salutations in the market-places, and first seats in the synagogues, and first couches in suppers, who are devouring the widows' houses, and for a pretence are making long prayers; these shall receive more abundant judgment.'
(Mark 12:35-40 YLT)
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THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to JOHN
The Word Became Flesh
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; this one was in the beginning with God; all things through him did happen, and without him happened not even one thing that hath happened. In him was life, and the life was the light of men, and the light in the darkness did shine, and the darkness did not perceive it.
There came a man—having been sent from God—whose name is John, this one came for testimony, that he might testify about the Light, that all might believe through him; that one was not the Light, but—that he might testify about the Light. He was the true Light, which doth enlighten every man, coming to the world; in the world he was, and the world through him was made, and the world did not know him: to his own things he came, and his own people did not receive him; but as many as did receive him to them he gave authority to become sons of God—to those believing in his name, who—not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but—of God were begotten.
And the Word became flesh, and did tabernacle among us, and we beheld his glory, glory as of an only begotten of a father, full of grace and truth. John doth testify concerning him, and hath cried, saying, 'This was he of whom I said, He who after me is coming, hath come before me, for he was before me;' and out of his fulness did we all receive, and grace over-against grace; for the law through Moses was given, the grace and the truth through Jesus Christ did come; God no one hath ever seen; the only begotten Son, who is on the bosom of the Father—he did declare.
(John 1:1-18 YLT)
The Testimony of John the Baptist
And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent out of Jerusalem priests and Levites, that they might question him, 'Who art thou?' and he confessed and did not deny, and confessed—'I am not the Christ.'
And they questioned him, 'What then? Elijah art thou?' and he saith, 'I am not.' —'The prophet art thou?' and he answered, 'No.'
They said then to him, 'Who art thou, that we may give an answer to those sending us? what dost thou say concerning thyself?'
He said, 'I am a voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet.'
And those sent were of the Pharisees, and they questioned him and said to him, 'Why, then, dost thou baptize, if thou art not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?'
John answered them, saying, 'I baptize with water, but in midst of you he hath stood whom ye have not known, this one it is who is coming after me, who hath been before me, of whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of his sandal.'
These things came to pass in Bethabara, beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing, on the morrow John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, 'Lo, the Lamb of God, who is taking away the sin of the world; this is he concerning whom I said, After me doth come a man, who hath come before me, because he was before me: and I knew him not, but, that he might be manifested to Israel, because of this I came with the water baptizing.
And John testified, saying—'I have seen the Spirit coming down, as a dove, out of heaven, and it remained on him; and I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water, He said to me, On whomsoever thou mayest see the Spirit coming down, and remaining on him, this is he who is baptizing with the Holy Spirit; and I have seen, and have testified, that this is the Son of God.'
(John 1:19-34 YLT)
You Must Be Born From Above
And there was a man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, a ruler of the Jews, this one came unto him by night, and said to him, 'Rabbi, we have known that from God thou hast come—a teacher, for no one these signs is able to do that thou dost, if God may not be with him.'
Jesus answered and said to him, 'Verily, verily, I say to thee, If any one may not be born from above, he is not able to see the reign of God;' Nicodemus saith unto him, 'How is a man able to be born, being old? is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter, and to be born?'
Jesus answered, 'Verily, verily, I say to thee, If any one may not be born of water, and the Spirit, he is not able to enter into the reign of God; that which hath been born of the flesh is flesh, and that which hath been born of the Spirit is spirit.
'Thou mayest not wonder that I said to thee, It behoveth you to be born from above; the Spirit where he willeth doth blow, and his voice thou dost hear, but thou hast not known whence he cometh, and whither he goeth; thus is every one who hath been born of the Spirit.'
Nicodemus answered and said to him, 'How are these things able to happen?' Jesus answered and said to him, 'Thou art the teacher of Israel—and these things thou dost not know!
'Verily, verily, I say to thee—What we have known we speak, and what we have seen we testify, and our testimony ye do not receive; if the earthly things I said to you, and ye do not believe, how, if I shall say to you the heavenly things, will ye believe? and no one hath gone up to the heaven, except he who out of the heaven came down—the Son of Man who is in the heaven.
'And as Moses did lift up the serpent in the wilderness, so it behoveth the Son of Man to be lifted up, that every one who is believing in him may not perish, but may have life age-during, for God did so love the world, that His Son—the only begotten—He gave, that every one who is believing in him may not perish, but may have life age-during. For God did not send His Son to the world that he may judge the world, but that the world may be saved through him; he who is believing in him is not judged, but he who is not believing hath been judged already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
'And this is the judgment, that the light hath come to the world, and men did love the darkness rather than the light, for their works were evil; for every one who is doing wicked things hateth the light, and doth not come unto the light, that his works may not be detected; but he who is doing the truth doth come to the light, that his works may be manifested, that in God they are having been wrought.'
(John 3:1-21 YLT)
John the Baptist Exalts Christ
After these things came Jesus and his disciples to the land of Judea, and there he did tarry with them, and was baptizing; and John was also baptizing in Aenon, nigh to Salem, because there were many waters there, and they were coming and were being baptized— for John was not yet cast into the prison— there arose then a question from the disciples of John with some Jews about purifying, and they came unto John, and said to him, 'Rabbi, he who was with thee beyond the Jordan, to whom thou didst testify, lo, this one is baptizing, and all are coming unto him.'
John answered and said, 'A man is not able to receive anything, if it may not have been given him from the heaven; ye yourselves do testify to me that I said, I am not the Christ, but, that I am having been sent before him; he who is having the bride is bridegroom, and the friend of the bridegroom, who is standing and hearing him, with joy doth rejoice because of the voice of the bridegroom; this, then, my joy hath been fulfilled.
'Him it behoveth to increase, and me to become less; he who from above is coming is above all; he who is from the earth, from the earth he is, and from the earth he speaketh; he who from the heaven is coming is above all.
'And what he hath seen and heard this he doth testify, and his testimony none receiveth; he who is receiving his testimony did seal that God is true; for he whom God sent, the sayings of God he speaketh; for not by measure doth God give the Spirit; the Father doth love the Son, and all things hath given into his hand; he who is believing in the Son, hath life age-during; and he who is not believing the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God doth remain upon him.'
(John 3:22-36 YLT)
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And Philip was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter; Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith to him, 'Him of whom Moses wrote in the Law, and the prophets, we have found, Jesus the son of Joseph, who is from Nazareth;' and Nathanael said to him, 'Out of Nazareth is any good thing able to be?' Philip said to him, 'Come and see.'
(John 1:44-46 YLT)
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The Jews, therefore, were murmuring at him, because he said, 'I am the bread that came down out of the heaven;' and they said, 'Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we have known? how then saith this one—Out of the heaven I have come down?'
(John 6:41-42 YLT)
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Many, therefore out of the multitude, having heard the word, said, 'This is truly the Prophet;' others said, 'This is the Christ;' and others said, 'Why, out of Galilee doth the Christ come? Did not the Writing say, that out of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem—the village where David was—the Christ doth come?' A division, therefore, arose among the multitude because of him.
(John 7:40-43 YLT)
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THE LETTERS by JOHN
The Word of the Life
That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we did behold, and our hands did handle, concerning the Word of the Life— and the Life was manifested, and we have seen, and do testify, and declare to you the Life, the age-during, which was with the Father, and was manifested to us— that which we have seen and heard declare we to you, that ye also may have fellowship with us, and our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ; and these things we write to you, that your joy may be full.
(1 John 1:1-4 YLT)
Walking in the Light
And this is the message that we have heard from Him, and announce to you, that God is light, and darkness in Him is not at all; if we may say—'we have fellowship with Him,' and in the darkness may walk—we lie, and do not the truth; and if in the light we may walk, as He is in the light—we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son doth cleanse us from every sin; if we may say—'we have not sin,' ourselves we lead astray, and the truth is not in us; if we may confess our sins, stedfast He is and righteous that He may forgive us the sins, and may cleanse us from every unrighteousness; if we may say—'we have not sinned,' a liar we make Him, and His word is not in us.
(1 John 1:5-10 YLT)
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THE LETTER to the HEBREWS
In many parts, and many ways, God of old having spoken to the fathers in the prophets, in these last days did speak to us in a Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did make the ages;
who being the brightness of the glory, and the impress of His subsistence, bearing up also the all things by the saying of his might—through himself having made a cleansing of our sins, sat down at the right hand of the greatness in the highest, having become so much better than the messengers, as he did inherit a more excellent name than they.
For to which of the messengers said He ever, 'My Son thou art—I to-day have begotten thee?' and again, 'I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son?' and when again He may bring in the first-born to the world, He saith, 'And let them bow before him—all messengers of God;'
and unto the messengers, indeed, He saith, 'Who is making His messengers spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire;'
and unto the Son: 'Thy throne, O God, is to the age of the age; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy reign; thou didst love righteousness, and didst hate lawlessness; because of this did He anoint thee—God, thy God—with oil of gladness above thy partners;'
and, 'Thou, at the beginning, Lord, the earth didst found, and a work of thy hands are the heavens; these shall perish, and Thou dost remain, and all, as a garment, shall become old, and as a mantle Thou shall roll them together, and they shall be changed, and Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail.'
And unto which of the messengers said He ever, 'Sit at My right hand, till I may make thine enemies thy footstool?' are they not all spirits of service—for ministration being sent forth because of those about to inherit salvation?
(Hebrews 1:1-14 YLT)
Of Old Having Spoke...In the Prophets
It seems the author is addressing the means by which God chooses to speak in the world we live. In the distant past up through John the Baptist, we see God speaking in/by/with prophets. In the New Testament Zacharias says this of his son, John the Baptist, when he was an infant:
And thou, child, Prophet of the Highest Shalt thou be called; For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord, To prepare His ways. To give knowledge of salvation to His people In remission of their sins, Through the tender mercies of our God, In which the rising from on high did look upon us, To give light to those sitting in darkness and death-shade, To guide our feet to a way of peace.'
And the child grew, and was strengthened in spirit, and he was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.
(Luke 1:76-80 YLT)
And this is what Jesus had to say concerning John the Baptist:
And the messengers of John having gone away, he began to say unto the multitudes concerning John: 'What have ye gone forth to the wilderness to look on? a reed by the wind shaken? but what have ye gone forth to see? a man in soft garments clothed? lo, they in splendid apparellings, and living in luxury, are in the houses of kings!
'But what have ye gone forth to see? a prophet? Yes, I say to you, and much more than a prophet: this is he concerning whom it hath been written, Lo, I send my messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee; for I say to you, a greater prophet, among those born of women, than John the Baptist there is not; but the least in the reign of God is greater than he.'
(Luke 7:24-28 YLT)
In These Last Days Did God Speak...In a Son
The author contrasts this by saying in these last days did God speak to us in a son, and then makes mention whom He appointed heir of all things.
It appears the author is pointing out the difference between being a prophet vs. being a son. While being a prophet is considered a spokesman, an agent for delivering a message, a son is more, he is appointed to be an heir of all.
Most would agree the reference to a son in this chapter is alluding to Jesus Christ, but I believe his intention first and foremost is not to name names at this point, but rather to address the position and/or title of a "son".
Through Whom Also He Did Make the Ages
The Greek word translated as "of all things" is a variation of "pas" (G3956), which means: individually: each, every, any, all, the whole, everyone, all things, everything", and is typically translated as "all" throughout the rest of this book. The word translated as "through" is "dia" (G1223), which is a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act, according to Thayer's Greek Definitions. And the word translated as "whom" is "ou" (G3739), which can mean who, which, what, that, depending on what it is referring to.
The word translated as "did make" is "poieo" (G4160) and means to make or to do, and the word translated as "ages" is "aion" (G165) and it primarily means for ever, an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity.
Given this, consider this:
...in these last days did God speak to us in a Son, whom God appointed heir of all and through whom God made the perpetuity of time;...
The Being of the Son
The author describes the being of the Son as: the brightness of the glory, and the impress of His subsistence. The Greek word translated as "impress" is "charakter"(G5481), and can mean either the instrument used for engraving or carving, or the mark stamped upon that instrument or wrought out on it. The KJV translates it as "the express image".
The Greek word translated as "subsistence" is "hupostasis" (G5287) and means either a setting or placing under, or that which has foundation, is firm. It is translated elsewhere as "confidence".
I believe this is another way of saying the Son is made in the image and likeness of his Father.
The Bearing Up All of the SonThe author continues describing the Son as: bearing up also the all things (or simply, also bearing up all). The Greek word
translated as "bearing up" is "phero" (G5342), and it means: to carry; to bear, i.e. endure; or to bring, bring to, bring forward. The KJV translates this word here as "upholding".
How does the Son carry/endure/bring forward/uphold all? The author explains: by the saying of his might (YLT) or by the word of his power (KJV), through himself having made a cleansing of our sins, sat down at the right hand of the greatness in the highest.
Here we see a transition from speaking generically about a son to what appears more specifically to be the Son: the Christ. He does so by touching on the roles of a priest, who makes a cleansing of sin, and a king, who sits at the right hand of the Most High.
And then he describes this son as having become so much better than the messengers, as he did inherit a more excellent name than they. What name is that? It seems to me that name (or position) might be: Christ, or Messiah, or the Anointed.
The Son vs. the Messengers
The author then draws a series of comparisons of what is said of the Son versus what is said of the Messengers. He quotes from the following passages found in the Old Testament regarding the Son:
Wherefore did the heathen rage, and the nations imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers gathered themselves together, against the Lord, and against his Christ; saying, Let us break through their bonds, and cast away their yoke from us.
He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn, and the Lord shall mock them. Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and trouble them in his fury. But I have been made king by him on Sion his holy mountain, declaring the ordinance of the Lord: the Lord said to me, Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces as a potter's vessel.
Now therefore understand, ye kings: be instructed, all ye that judge the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice in him with trembling. Accept correction, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and ye should perish from the righteous way: whensoever his wrath shall be suddenly kindled, blessed are all they that trust in him.
(Psalms 2:1-12 Brenton)
And it shall come to pass when thy days shall have been fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, even thine own issue, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build for me a house to my name, and I will set up his throne even for ever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. And when he happens to transgress, then will I chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the sons of men. But my mercy I will not take from him, as I took it from those whom I removed from my presence. And his house shall be made sure, and his kingdom for ever before me, and his throne shall be set up for ever.
(2 Samuel 7:12-16 Brenton)
Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people.
(Deuteronomy 32:43 Brenton)
Then he quotes from the following regarding the messengers:
A Psalm of David. Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou hast clothed thyself with praise and honour: who dost robe thyself with light as with a garment; spreading out the heaven as a curtain. Who covers his chambers with waters; who makes the clouds his chariot; who walks on the wings of the wind. Who makes his angels spirits, and his ministers a flaming fire.
(Psalms 104:1-4 Brenton)
And then he quotes from this regarding the Son:
For the end, for alternate strains by the sons of Core; for instruction, a Song concerning the beloved. My heart has uttered a good matter: I declare my works to the king: my tongue is the pen of a quick writer. Thou art more beautiful than the sons of men: grace has been shed forth on thy lips: therefore God has blessed thee for ever. Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O Mighty One, in thy comeliness, and in thy beauty; and bend thy bow, and prosper, and reign, because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall guide thee wonderfully. Thy weapons are sharpened, Mighty One, (the nations shall fall under thee) they are in the heart of the king's enemies.
Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of righteousness. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity: therefore God, thy God, has anointed thee with the oil of gladness beyond thy fellows. Myrrh, and stacte, and cassia are exhaled from thy garments, and out of the ivory palaces, with which kings' daughters have gladdened thee for thine honour: the queen stood by on thy right hand, clothed in vesture wrought with gold, and arrayed in divers colours.
(Psalms 45:1-9 Brenton)
And then he quotes:
In the beginning thou, O Lord, didst lay the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands. They shall perish, but thou remainest: and they all shall wax old as a garment; and as a vesture shalt thou fold them, and they shall be changed. But thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail.
(Psalms 102:25-27 Brenton)
But then he concludes, asking, unto which of the messengers said he ever, quoting from the following:
A Psalm of David. The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
The Lord shall send out a rod of power for thee out of Sion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. With thee is dominion in the day of thy power, in the splendours of thy saints: I have begotten thee from the womb before the morning.
The Lord sware, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec. The Lord at thy right hand has dashed in pieces kings in the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the nations, he shall fill up the number of corpses, he shall crush the heads of many on the earth. He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head.
(Psalms 110:1-7 Brenton)
The author reiterates the point that the messengers are spirits of service -- for ministration being sent forth because of those about to inherit salvation. And the psalm from which he is quoting is speaking of a future with a priest-king reigning over all in the Kingdom of God, who was begotten from before time began.
I don't think this is saying this priest-king was literally in existence before time began, but rather the thought of him was there within the mind of God from the beginning of time as described in Genesis 1. It was just a matter of time, the unfolding of the generations of man, for him to come to be.
Those About to Inherit Salvation
The word translated in Hebrews 1:14 as "salvation" is "soteria" (G4991), and it means deliverance, preservation, safety, salvation.
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2: Salvation to Come
Because of this it behoveth us more abundantly to take heed to the things heard, lest we may glide aside, for if the word being spoken through messengers did become stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience did receive a just recompense, how shall we escape, having neglected so great salvation? which a beginning receiving—to be spoken through the Lord—by those having heard was confirmed to us, God also bearing joint-witness both with signs and wonders, and manifold powers, and distributions of the Holy Spirit, according to His will.
For not to messengers did He subject the coming world, concerning which we speak, and one in a certain place did testify fully, saying, 'What is man, that Thou art mindful of him, or a son of man, that Thou dost look after him? Thou didst make him some little less than messengers, with glory and honour Thou didst crown him, and didst set him over the works of Thy hands, all things Thou didst put in subjection under his feet,' for in the subjecting to him the all things, nothing did He leave to him unsubjected, and now not yet do we see the all things subjected to him, and him who was made some little less than messengers we see—Jesus—because of the suffering of the death, with glory and honour having been crowned, that by the grace of God for every one he might taste of death.
For it was becoming to Him, because of whom are the all things, and through whom are the all things, many sons to glory bringing, the author of their salvation through sufferings to make perfect, for both he who is sanctifying and those sanctified are all of one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying,
'I will declare Thy name to my brethren, in the midst of an assembly I will sing praise to Thee;'
and again, 'I will be trusting on Him;'
and again, 'Behold I and the children that God did give to me.'
Seeing, then, the children have partaken of flesh and blood, he himself also in like manner did take part of the same, that through death he might destroy him having the power of death—that is, the devil— and might deliver those, whoever, with fear of death, throughout all their life, were subjects of bondage, for, doubtless, of messengers it doth not lay hold, but of seed of Abraham it layeth hold, wherefore it did behove him in all things to be made like to the brethren, that he might become a kind and stedfast chief-priest in the things with God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people, for in that he suffered, himself being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted.
(Hebrews 2:1-18 YLT)
The Word Being Spoken by Messengers
The following are just some examples of the word being spoken by messengers. An angel of the Lord appears to Hagar:
And Sara the wife of Abram bore him no children; and she had an Egyptian maid, whose name was Agar. And Sara said to Abram, Behold, the Lord has restrained me from bearing, go therefore in to my maid, that I may get children for myself through her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sara. So Sara the wife of Abram having taken Agar the Egyptian her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Chanaan, gave her to Abram her husband as a wife to him. And he went in to Agar, and she conceived, and saw that she was with child, and her mistress was dishonoured before her. And Sara said to Abram, I am injured by thee; I gave my handmaid into thy bosom, and when I saw that she was with child, I was dishonoured before her. The Lord judge between me and thee. And Abram said to Sara, Behold thy handmaid is in thy hands, use her as it may seem good to thee. And Sara afflicted her, and she fled from her face.
And an angel of the Lord found her by the fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Sur.
And the angel of the Lord said to her, Agar, Sara's maid, whence comest thou, and wither goest thou? and she said, I am fleeing from the face of my mistress Sara.
And the angel of the Lord said to her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.
And the angel of the Lord said to her, I will surely multiply thy seed, and it shall not be numbered for multitude.
And the angel of the Lord said to her, Behold thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ismael, for the Lord hath hearkened to thy humiliation. He shall be a wild man, his hands against all, and the hands of all against him, and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
And she called the name of the Lord God who spoke to her, Thou art God who seest me; for she said, For I have openly seen him that appeared to me. Therefore she called the well, The well of him whom I have openly seen; behold it is between Cades and Barad. And Agar bore a son to Abram; and Abram called the name of his son which Agar bore to him, Ismael. And Abram was eighty-six years old, when Agar bore Ismael to Abram.
(Genesis 16:1-16 Brenton)
Two angels visit Lot to rescue him and his household:
And the two angels came to Sodom at evening. And Lot sat by the gate of Sodom, and Lot having seen them, rose up to meet them, and he worshipped with his face to the ground, and said, Lo! my lords, turn aside to the house of your servant, and rest from your journey, and wash your feet, and having risen early in the morning ye shall depart on your journey. And they said, Nay, but we will lodge in the street.
And he constrained them, and they turned aside to him, and they entered into his house, and he made a feast for them, and baked unleavened cakes for them, and they did eat. But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the Sodomites, compassed the house, both young and old, all the people together. And they called out Lot, and said to him, Where are the men that went in to thee this night? bring them out to us that we may be with them.
And Lot went out to them to the porch, and he shut the door after him, and said to them, By no means, brethren, do not act villanously. But I have two daughters, who have not known a man. I will bring them out to you, and do ye use them as it may please you, only do not injury to these men, to avoid which they came under the shelter of my roof. And they said to him, Stand back there, thou camest in to sojourn, was it also to judge? Now then we would harm thee more than them. And they pressed hard on the man, even Lot, and they drew nigh to break the door. And the men stretched forth their hands and drew Lot in to them into the house, and shut the door of the house. And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great, and they were wearied with seeking the door.
And the men said to Lot, Hast thou here sons-in-law, or sons or daughters, or if thou hast any other friend in the city, bring them out of this place. For we are going to destroy this place; for their cry has been raised up before the Lord, and the Lord has sent us to destroy it.
And Lot went out, and spoke to his sons-in-law who had married his daughters, and said, Rise up, and depart out of this place, for the Lord is about to destroy the city; but he seemed to be speaking absurdly before his sons-in-law.
But when it was morning, the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise and take thy wife, and thy two daughters whom thou hast, and go forth; lest thou also be destroyed with the iniquities of the city.
And they were troubled, and the angels laid hold on his hand, and the hand of his wife, and the hands of his two daughters, in that the Lord spared him. And it came to pass when they brought them out, that they said, Save thine own life by all means; look not round to that which is behind, nor stay in all the country round about, escape to the mountain, lest perhaps thou be overtaken together with them.
And Lot said to them, I pray, Lord, since thy servant has found mercy before thee, and thou hast magnified thy righteousness, in what thou doest towards me that my soul may live, --but I shall not be able to escape to the mountain, lest perhaps the calamity overtake me and I die. Behold this city is near for me to escape thither, which is a small one, and there shall I be preserved, is it not little? and my soul shall live because of thee.
And he said to him, Behold, I have had respect to thee also about this thing, that I should not overthrow the city about which thou hast spoken. Hasten therefore to escape thither, for I shall not be able to do anything until thou art come thither; therefore he called the name of that city, Segor.
(Genesis 19:1-22 Brenton)
An angel of God rescues Ishmael:
And Abraam rose up in the morning and took loaves and a skin of water, and gave them to Agar, and he put the child on her shoulder, and sent her away, and she having departed wandered in the wilderness near the well of the oath. And the water failed out of the skin, and she cast the child under a fir tree. And she departed and sat down opposite him at a distance, as it were a bow-shot, for she said, Surely I cannot see the death of my child: and she sat opposite him, and the child cried aloud and wept.
And God heard the voice of the child from the place where he was, and an angel of God called Agar out of heaven, and said to her, What is it, Agar? fear not, for God has heard the voice of the child from the place where he is. Rise up, and take the child, and hold him in thine hand, for I will make him a great nation.
And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of springing water; and she went and filled the skin with water, and gave the child drink. And God was with the child, and he grew and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. And he dwelt in the wilderness, and his mother took him a wife out of Pharan of Egypt.
(Genesis 21:14-21 Brenton)
An angel of the Lord rescues Isaac and reassures Abraham of the promises made to him concerning his seed:
And it came to pass after these things that God tempted Abraam, and said to him, Abraam, Abraam; and he said, Lo! I am here. And he said, Take thy son, the beloved one, whom thou hast loved—Isaac, and go into the high land, and offer him there for a whole-burnt-offering on one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.
And Abraam rose up in the morning and saddled his ass, and he took with him two servants, and Isaac his son, and having split wood for a whole-burnt-offering, he arose and departed, and came to the place of which God spoke to him, on the third day; and Abraam having lifted up his eyes, saw the place afar off. And Abraam said to his servants, Sit ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will proceed thus far, and having worshipped we will return to you.
And Abraam took the wood of the whole-burnt-offering, and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took into his hands both the fire and the knife, and the two went together. And Isaac said to Abraam his father, Father. And he said, What is it, son? And he said, Behold the fire and the wood, where is the sheep for a whole-burnt-offering? And Abraam said, God will provide himself a sheep for a whole-burnt-offering, my son. And both having gone together, came to the place which God spoke of to him; and there Abraam built the altar, and laid the wood on it, and having bound the feet of Isaac his son together, he laid him on the altar upon the wood.
And Abraam stretched forth his hand to take the knife to slay his son. And an angel of the Lord called him out of heaven, and said, Abraam, Abraam. And he said, Behold, I am here. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the child, neither do anything to him, for now I know that thou fearest God, and for my sake thou hast not spared thy beloved son.
And Abraam lifted up his eyes and beheld, and lo! a ram caught by his horns in a plant of Sabec; and Abraam went and took the ram, and offered him up for a whole-burnt-offering in the place of Isaac his son. And Abraam called the name of that place, The Lord hath seen; that they might say to-day, In the mount the Lord was seen.
And an angel of the Lord called Abraam the second time out of heaven, saying, I have sworn by myself, says the Lord, because thou hast done this thing, and on my account hast not spared thy beloved son, surely blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is by the shore of the sea, and thy seed shall inherit the cities of their enemies. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast hearkened to my voice.
And Abraam returned to his servants, and they arose and went together to the well of the oath; and Abraam dwelt at the well of the oath.
(Genesis 22:1-19 Brenton)
An angel of the Lord went up from Gilgal to the place of weeping:
And an angel of the Lord went up from Galgal to the place of weeping, and to Baethel, and to the house of Israel, and said to them, Thus says the Lord, I brought you up out of Egypt, and I brought you into the land which I sware to your fathers; and I said, I will never break my covenant that I have made with you. And ye shall make no covenant with them that dwell in this land, neither shall ye worship their gods; but ye shall destroy their graven images, ye shall pull down their altars: but ye hearkened not to my voice, for ye did these things. And I said, I will not drive them out from before you, but they shall be for a distress to you, and their gods shall be to you for an offence.
And it came to pass when the angel of the Lord spoke these words to all the children of Israel, that the people lifted up their voice, and wept. And they named the name of that place Weepings; and they sacrificed there to the Lord.
(Judges 2:1-5 Brenton)
An angel of the Lord appears to Gideon:
And an angel of the Lord came, and sat down under the fir tree, which was in Ephratha in the land of Joas father of Esdri; and Gedeon his son was threshing wheat in a wine-press in order to escape from the face of Madiam. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him and said to him, The Lord is with thee, thou mighty in strength.
And Gedeon said to him, Be gracious with me, my Lord: but if the Lord is with us, why have these evils found us? and where are all his miracles, which our fathers have related to us, saying, Did not the Lord bring us up out of Egypt? and now he has cast us out, and given us into the hand of Madiam.
And the angel of the Lord turned to him, and said, Go in this thy strength, and thou shalt save Israel out of the hand of Madiam: behold, I have sent thee.
And Gedeon said to him, Be gracious with me, my Lord: whereby shall I save Israel? behold, my thousand is weakened in Manasse, and I am the least in my father's house.
And the angel of the Lord said to him, The Lord shall be with thee, and thou shalt smite Madiam as one man.
And Gedeon said to him, If now I have found mercy in thine eyes, and thou wilt do this day for me all that thou hast spoken of with me, depart not hence until I come to thee, and I will bring forth an offering and offer it before thee: and he said, I will remain until thou return. And Gedeon went in, and prepared a kid of the goats, and an ephah of fine flour unleavened; and he put the flesh in the basket, and poured the broth into the pot, and brought them forth to him under the turpentine tree, and drew nigh.
And the angel of God said to him, Take the flesh and the unleavened cakes, and put them on that rock, and pour out the broth close by: and he did so. And the angel of the Lord stretched out the end of the rod that was in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened bread; and fire came up out of the rock, and consumed the flesh and the unleavened bread, and the angel of the Lord vanished from his sight.
And Gedeon saw that he was an angel of the Lord; and Gedeon said, Ah, ah, Lord my God! for I have seen the angel of the Lord face to face. And the Lord said to him, Peace be to thee, fear not, thou shalt not die. And Gedeon built there an altar to the Lord, and called it The peace of the Lord, until this day, as it is still in Ephratha of the father of Esdri.
(Judges 6:11-24 Brenton)
The Coming World
The word translated as "world" in verse 5 is "oikoumene" (G3625) and means the inhabited earth (or land). The author points out that it is not to messengers/angels to whom God subjected the coming inhabited land, but it was to mankind. He then quotes from Psalm 8:
For the end, concerning the wine-presses, a Psalm of David. O Lord, our Lord, how wonderful is thy name in all the earth! for thy magnificence is exalted above the heavens. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou perfected praise, because of thine enemies; that thou mightest put down the enemy and avenger. For I will regard the heavens, the work of thy fingers; the moon and stars, which thou hast established. What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest him? Thou madest him a little less than angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honour; and thou hast set him over the works of thy hands: thou hast put all things under his feet: sheep and all oxen, yea and the cattle of the field; the birds of the sky, and the fish of the sea, the creatures passing through the paths of the sea. O Lord our Lord, how wonderful is thy name in all the earth!
(Psalms 8:1-9 Brenton)
The emphasis is on the notion that it is man, and the son of man, that is to inherit the land/earth and have dominion over it, not the angels. It is my understanding that being made a little lower than the angels is a reference to mankind's mortality, that we are all subject to die due to the fall of Adam in the garden.
Angels are immortal, according to the Book of Enoch. When speaking of the heavenly sons of God, who mated with the daughters of men, it states:
1. And He answered and said to me, and I heard His voice: 'Fear not, Enoch, thou righteous man and scribe of righteousness: approach hither and hear my voice. 2. And go, say to [the Watchers of heaven], who have sent thee to intercede [for them: "You should intercede"] for men, and not men for you: 3. Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons?
4. And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those [also] do who die and perish. 5. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. 6. But you were [formerly] spiritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. 7. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. (1 Enoch 15:1-7 RH Charles)
Mankind does not yet see all subject to him yet, because we are all bound to die, but Jesus, who had suffered and died, having tasted death for all, was then, by God's grace raised to life, and crowned with glory and honour. Jesus was a representative for all mankind, having received salvation from death first, and then being crowned with glory and honour.
Of Whom All and Through Whom All
The author continues, For it was becoming (or seemly or fit) to him, because of whom [are] the all things, and through whom [are] the all things... The English word "are" is added in by the translator to aid the reader, and the Greek word translated as "the all things" can simply be translated as, "all" or "everything". So another way of saying this could be:
For it was becoming to him, because of whom all, and through whom all...
The Greek word translated as "whom" (G3739) in this sentence is used in two different ways: the former as a genitive pronoun (showing either possession or origin) and the latter as an accusitive pronoun (being a direct object).
I believe using the English preposition "of" with the former use of "whom" denotes possession, whereas "from" would have denoted origin. So, it appears to me the author is saying, For it was becoming to him, because all was possessed by him, being a son.
And then, the second use of whom is saying, all was through him, being a channel for what is stated next: many sons to glory bringing.
Many Sons to Glory Bringing
The Young's Literal Translation can be a bit tricky to read because it translates in the sequence the Greek is written with the action coming after the object of the action. The KJV translates this portion of verse 10 as:
...by whom [are] all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
The Greek word translated as "bringing" is "ago" (G71), and it means to lead, take with one. I see the author saying that Jesus is leading many sons to glory, having been the first to overcome death and being crowned with glory and honour himself. The expectation is that the rest of mankind, or more specifically the other sons of God from among mankind, may overcome death and too, be crowned with glory and honour.
The Author of Their Salvation
The Greek word translated as "author" in the YLT is "archegos" (G747), and it means chief leader, prince. It comes from two words: "arche" (G746), which primarily means beginning, origin or the person or thing that commences, the first person or thing in a series, the leader and "ago" (G71), which again, means to lead, take with one.
This word appears two dozen times in the Old Testament. Here are a few examples of its use, demonstrating it is a reference to a leading representative from among men:
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Send for thee men, and let them spy the land of the Chananites, which I give to the sons of Israel for a possession; one man for a tribe, thou shalt send them away according to their families, every one of them a prince. And Moses sent them out of the wilderness of Pharan by the word of the Lord; all these were the princes of the sons of Israel.
(Numbers 13:2-4 Brenton)
And Core the son of Isaar the son of Caath the son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiron, sons of Eliab, and Aun the son of Phaleth the son of Ruben, spoke; and rose up before Moses, and two hundred and fifty men of the sons of Israel, chiefs of the assembly, chosen councillors, and men of renown.
(Numbers 16:1-2 Brenton)
Jesus is the Son who who was chosen from among mankind to be a chief leading representative for all other Sons.
Through Sufferings To Make Perfect
I believe the word "sufferings" in verse 10 is a reference back to "the suffering of the death" in the previous verse. It is not suggestive of how one dies, but rather the fact that one actually dies.
The Greek word translated as "to make perfect" in verse 10 is "teleioo" (G5048) and it means to make perfect, complete.
My understanding of verse 10 could be translated as:
For it was becoming to Jesus, being the possessor of all as "a son", and the channel of all in leading many sons unto glory, to make the chief leader of their salvation complete through the suffering of the death.
I see Jesus was leading many sons to glory by way of his ministry following his water baptism, teaching and preaching on the kingdom of God. He revealed even more from the Law and the Prophets through his sayings than the prophets who came before him did.
Calling Them Brethren
The author continues, for both he who is sanctifying and those sanctified [are] all of one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren, and then he quotes from the following Psalm demonstrating his point:
For the end, concerning the morning aid, a Psalm of David. O God, my God, attend to me: why hast thou forsaken me? the account of my transgressions is far from my salvation. O my God, I will cry to thee by day, but thou wilt not hear: and by night, and it shall not be accounted for folly to me. But thou, the praise of Israel, dwellest in a sanctuary. Our fathers hoped in thee; they hoped, and thou didst deliver them. They cried to thee, and were saved: they hoped in thee, and were not ashamed. But I am a worm, and not a man; a reproach of men, and scorn of the people. All that saw me mocked me: they spoke with their lips, they shook the head, saying, He hoped in the Lord: let him deliver him, let him save him, because he takes pleasure in him.
For thou art he that drew me out of the womb; my hope from my mother's breasts. I was cast on thee from the womb: thou art my God from my mother's belly. Stand not aloof from me; for affliction is near; for there is no helper. Many bullocks have compassed me: fat bulls have beset me round. They have opened their mouth against me, as a ravening and roaring lion. I am poured out like water, and all my bones are loosened: my heart in the midst of my belly is become like melting wax. My strength is dried up, like a potsherd; and my tongue is glued to my throat; and thou hast brought me down to the dust of death.
For many dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked doers has beset me round: they pierced my hands and my feet. They counted all my bones; and they observed and looked upon me. They parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my raiment.
But thou, O Lord, remove not my help afar off: be ready for mine aid. Deliver my soul from the sword; my only-begotten one from the power of the dog. Save me from the lion's mouth; and regard my lowliness from the horns of the unicorns. I will declare thy name to my brethren: in the midst of the church will I sing praise to thee.
Ye that fear the Lord, praise him; all ye seed of Jacob, glorify him: let all the seed of Israel fear him. For he has not despised nor been angry at the supplication of the poor; nor turned away his face from me; but when I cried to him, he heard me. My praise is of thee in the great congregation: I will pay my vows before them that fear him.
The poor shall eat and be satisfied; and they shall praise the Lord that seek him: their heart shall live for ever. All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before him. For the kingdom is the Lord's; and he is the governor of the nations.
All the fat ones of the earth have eaten and worshipped: all that go down to the earth shall fall down before him: my soul also lives to him. And my seed shall serve him: the generation that is coming shall be reported to the Lord. And they shall report his righteousness to the people that shall be born, whom the Lord has made.
(Psalms 22:1-31 Brenton)
And then the author appears to quote from Isaiah 8:
Thus saith the Lord, With a strong hand they revolt from the course of the way of this people, saying, Let them not say, It is hard, for whatsoever this people says, is hard: but fear not ye their fear, neither be dismayed. Sanctify ye the Lord himself; and he shall be thy fear. And if thou shalt trust in him, he shall be to thee for a sanctuary; and ye shall not come against him as against a stumbling-stone, neither as against the falling of a rock: but the houses of Jacob are in a snare, and the dwellers in Jerusalem in a pit.
Therefore many among them shall be weak, and fall, and be crushed; and they shall draw nigh, and men shall be taken securely. Then shall those who seal themselves that they may not learn the law be made manifest. And one shall say, I will wait for God, who has turned away his face from the house of Jacob, and I will trust in him. Behold I and the children which God has given me: and they shall be for signs and wonders in the house of Israel from the Lord of hosts, who dwells in mount Sion.
(Isaiah 8:11-18 Brenton)
The author expounds on the reference to children, saying they have partaken of flesh and blood, referring, I believe, to being made after like kind: mortal men having been begotten of mortal men. He points out how Jesus was also a mortal, and that through death he might destroy him having the power of death--that is, the devil--and might deliver those, whoever, with fear of death, througout all their life, were subjects of bondage.
The author explains that messengers are not held in bondage to death; they are immortal. But the seed of Abraham are held in bondage. So it was befitting to have the chief leading "Son" to be made like to the brethren, that he might become a kind and stedfast chief-priest in the things with God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people, for in that he suffered, himself being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted.
I believe one of the overarching points the author is making in these opening chapters is that Jesus is of human origin, who is mortal, as opposed to being an angel, (aka a heavenly being), who is immortal.
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Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, having been separated to the good news of God— which He announced before through His prophets in holy writings— concerning His Son, (who is come of the seed of David according to the flesh, who is marked out Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of sanctification, by the rising again from the dead,) Jesus Christ our Lord; through whom we did receive grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, in behalf of his name; among whom are also ye, the called of Jesus Christ; to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called saints; Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ!
(Romans 1:1-7 YLT)
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Remember Jesus Christ, raised out of the dead, of the seed of David, according to my good news, in which I suffer evil—unto bonds, as an evil-doer, but the word of God hath not been bound; because of this all things do I endure, because of the choice ones, that they also salvation may obtain that is in Christ Jesus, with glory age-during.
(2 Timothy 2:8-10 YLT)
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